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Abstrakt

Prezentowany artykuł jest prześledzeniem historii „Gazety Nowej”, jednego z pierwszych tytułów prasowych, w nowych po 1989 roku realiach społeczno-politycznych z perspektywy jej pomysłodawcy i realizatora — Andrzeja Bucka. Gazeta powstała w Zielonej Górze jako prywatny tygodnik, przekształcając się z czasem w gazetę codzienną, której mutacje ukazywały się w Głogowie, Gorzowie, Lubinie, a od 1992 r. także w Żarach. Autor przybliża okoliczności, w jakich powstawała gazeta, cele i zamierzenia, które przed sobą stawiała. Szczegółowo opisuje charakter i strukturę periodyku, imiennie przytaczając skład zespołu redakcyjnego. Z autopsji odtwarza fakty, które sprawiły, że „Gazeta Nowa” stała się przeciwwagą dla jedynego dotąd dziennika ukazującego się w regionie lubuskim — „Gazety Lubuskiej”. Szczegółowo analizuje przyczyny, z powodu których tytuł przestał się ostatecznie ukazywać w lipcu 1993 r.
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Słowa kluczowe Mieczysław Jastrun

Abstrakt

The article analyzes the symbols, motifs and images in Mieczysław Jastrun’s poetry to reconstruct his vision of childhood within in a broad philosophical and anthropological perspective, drawing in particular on Gaston Bachelard’s idea of “reveries toward childhood” and Mircea Eliade’s discussion of sacred time and space. In many of Jastrun’s poems the evocation of childhood is associated with a pastoral summer landscape; it is not, however, a specifi c summer, an identifi able moment of his life, but an image representing the essence of childhood. It is an evocation of happiness, security, a promise of future wellbeing, an experience of fullness of being or a communion with nature and a transcendent reality. The interpretation of individual poems clearly point to the conclusion that childhood remains for Jastrun a sacrum, an immanent sacred site. It is, however, also a lost childhood, viewed from the perspective of an adult who has been irrevocably expelled from that Arcadia and has to live in a transient world doomed to death. The longing for the idyllic childhood can be found throughout Jastrun’s verse, nowhere as poignant as in his last volume of poems, completed before his death.
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Słowa kluczowe Joanna Mueller

Abstrakt

This article examines the problem of motherhood in the poetry of Joanna Mueller from the perspective of feminist body studies. Throughout her poetic work Mueller keeps analyzing the formation of a new subject, a process closely connected with the creation, or giving birth, to new poems and reproduction. She dignifi es the experience of motherhood by focusing on the peculiar condition of ‘being two in one’. This is further enhanced by the emblematic arrangement of the individual poems (formed into mounds, folds, the womb, the vagina, and blood vessels) and references to the primeval Mother Goddess. The matrifocal narration exalts the maternal female body to its sovereign position, justifi ed by its power over life; indeed, the combined force of Mueller’s naturalistic description and discursive momentum not only subverts the patriarchal narrative of female passivity and inferiority but in a way sacralizes the feminine principle.
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Słowa kluczowe Aleksander Wat

Abstrakt

The poetic work of Aleksander Wat has enjoyed unfl agging popularity for the last 25 years. Critical appreciations of his work invariably emphasize a strong connection between his poetic work and some elements of his biography, i.e. detention in NKVD prisons, deportation to Soviet Central Asia, and the pain and stress of an incurable illness in the late fi fties and sixties. This article argues that the key to his verse can be found the concept of somatopoetry which takes into account both the heightened awareness of the body and the sensuality of Wat’s lyrical utterance. More specifi cally, this article attempts to draw an acoustic map of the poet’s verse written between 1957 and 1967, using the tools of f musicology, cultural anthropology of things and audio-anthropology. Drawing on Andrzej Hejmej’s concept of musicality Type 2 (thematization of music in a literary composition), the article tries to trace the presence of instruments in Wat’s work and assess their phonic and cultural roles in the creation of meaning. Finally, the article claims that the phonic layer beneath the references to instruments forms a track that can be described as a route to the poet’s death.
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Abstrakt

W latach 1897–1915 ośmiu twórcom (Teodor Bobowski, Ludwik Małolepszy, Hieronim Stefanowicz, Joachim Sołtys, Idzi Świtała, Sylwester Czarnecki, Zygfryd Kąkolewski i Eryk Średzki) „Gazety Kościańskiej”, od 1902 r. wydawanej jako „Gazeta Polska”, wytoczono procesy prasowe, w wyniku których musieli oni zapłacić 1535 marek grzywny i odsiedzieć w więzieniu trzy miesiące i jeden dzień. Ponadto w większości wypadków sądy zezwoliły na zamianę kary finansowej na pobyt w więzieniu.
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Słowa kluczowe August Antoni Jakubowski

Abstrakt

This article re-examines the life and work of August Antoni Jakubowski, illegitimate son of the Romantic poet Antoni Malczewski. After the November Uprising (1830–1831) Jakubowski was deported from Austria to the Unites States, where he wrote The Remembrances of a Polish Exile, the fi rst book on Polish history, literature and education to be published in America in English. The article discusses ‘Melodie amerykańskie’ [American Melodies], a little known poem which has not yet been the subject of an in-depth literary analysis, as well as a number of hitherto unknown references to Jakubowski in the letters his student Mary Pierce Poor wrote to her parents between 1836 and 1837. The article presents the results of research into primary source material in American collections; the project was funded by a grant from the Kościuszko Foundation.
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Słowa kluczowe Kazimierz Wierzyński

Abstrakt

The article explores the role of musical themes in the work of Kazimierz Wierzyń ski from the perspective of auditive practice in the context of what is known about the poet’s personal tastes and appreciation of the art of sounds and noises. Most attention is paid to Wierzyński’s verse written in exile because there the musical references became more complex than in the prewar and the postwar phases of his poetic career. It was then the musical references began to function as a sign of the poet’s encounter with individual compositions and musical traditions – a record of a direct, personal and touching musical experience – rather than a metaphoric amplifi cation or a rhetorical ornament.
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Abstrakt

Artykuł jest ekonomiczną analizą polskiego rynku prasy drukowanej w latach 1990–2015. Zawiera ilościową charakterystykę rynku pod względem jego wielkości (liczba wydawanych tytułów, liczba wydawców, nakład globalny, sprzedaż egzemplarzowa), struktury i efektywności. Analiza jakościowa skupia się na ocenie zmian, jakie cyfryzacja mediów wywołała w produkcji i konsumpcji prasy oraz jej wpływie na opłacalność działalności wydawniczej i pozycję rynkową wydawców prasy.
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Słowa kluczowe Cyprian Kamil Norwid

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This article is an attempt to assess the role of oral performance in the life and work of Cyprian Norwid. The study covers the whole range of the poet’s cultural practices, i.e. his lectures, recitations, and public readings with the matching introductions and comments, which exemplify Norwid’s idea of the living word (cf. Lectures on Juliusz Słowacki, On Recitation, On the Freedom of Speech), as well as the accounts of those who were in the audience at these events. The analyses show that Norwid was convinced about the exceptional value of the spoken word and importance of the oral aspect of language. He employed it systematically to create the public sphere, to infl uence people, uphold a ‘community of truth’ and open it up onto a metaphysical universe. This interpretation of Norwid’s thought draws on the poet’s own understanding of the word, the ancient Greek oral tradition (Socrates and Plato), the Judeo-Christian ideas of verbal expression and nineteenth-century philosophical and linguistic concepts of orality to present a less known profi le of Norwid, an artist of oral expression in an age of the written and the printed word.
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Słowa kluczowe Wiesław Myśliwski

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The article examines a symbolic photograph described in A Treatise on Shelling Beans, a novel by Wiesław Myśliwski. In my interpretation the picture, which may have never been taken, is a visual catachresis, a signifi er of war trauma. Its depiction of an encounter between the victim of a pacifi cation and the son of the perpetrator can be treated as a wish projection and discussed from the perspective of two interrelated and complementary approaches – trauma and memory studies and the philosophy of dialogue. In practice, the discussion makes use of Aleida Assman’s ‘strategy of keeping silence’ and the concept of encounter, formulated by Emmanuel Levinas and developed by his Polish follower Józef Tischner.
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Słowa kluczowe Czesław Miłosz

Abstrakt

The article is devoted to probably one of the most important themes in Czesław Miłosz’s poetry: a persistent, untiring effort to express, or at least point to, the poet’s experience of dark epiphanies. They are, in his own words, momentary illuminations bringing to light the ontological core of various horrors of human existence and of nature, red in tooth and claw, as well as the enigmatic presence of metaphysical evil in the laws that make for order in our material world. Some of those epiphanies reveal to the poet his destiny: he is to become a witness of the horrors of the twentieth century. However, not all of those auguries are uniformly grim; there are some that suggest his prospects may well be bright. That ambivalence is refl ected in Miłosz’s own attitude towards those sudden fl ashes of insight and revelation. He certainly does not resolve it in his poetry, where the ambivalence of the epiphanic moments is expressed and concealed by the pronoun ‘it’.
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Słowa kluczowe Tadeusz Miciński

Abstrakt

‘The Tatras’ was originally published in the periodical Przegląd Zakopiański in 1902. The poem evokes an apocalyptic landscape dominated by the personifi ed Tatras and an emerging community (a rare example of a collective making an appearance in Miciński’s poetry), whose ways leave little room for optimism. The world, destroyed in a global confl agration, is being harried by a vicious Spectre, whose ravages are highlighted by the poem’s rhythmic structure. In spite of the similarities between it and some of Miciński’s best-known verse from the volume W mroku gwiazd (In the Twilight of the Stars) – i.e. the choice of imagery and colours, the infl uence of expres sionism) – ‘The Tatras’ remains a strikingly odd poem. It is that peculiar quality which may have made one of the less popular of Miciński’s poems.
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Abstrakt

This is attempt at drawing an audial map of Władysław Reymont’s The Vampire, taking into account all kinds of sound effects that create the atmosphere of horror, complicate the relations between characters and provoke a sense of the uncanny in the reader. One of those devices, whose importance is hard to overestimate, is silence (speechlessness). The article analyzes in detail its use in the novel, which is in many ways indebted to the modernist, neo-romantic poetics of Young Poland.
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Słowa kluczowe Jan Kochanowski

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The main aim of the paper is to urge a correction in Jan Kochanowski’s translation Euripides’s Alcestis (v. 67), edited posthumously by Jan Januszowski in the volume Fragmenta albo pozostałe pisma (1590). In the Greek text (Prologue, l. 67) Apollo prophesizes that a man on the way back from wintry Thrace (Θρῄκης ἐκ τόπων δυσχειμέρων) (the reference to King Eurystheus’ horses enables us to identify him as Heracles) will snatch Alcestis from the hands of Death. In the Polish version of Apollo’s prophesy we fi nd the phrase ‘do zimnej Trąby’ (‘cold Tube’). The philological investigation undertaken in this paper has two goals to achieve. Firstly, it reconstructs the literary tradition of presenting Thrace as a land of severely cold climate (Homer, Livy, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Statius). And secondly, it takes into consideration the meaning of this poetical landscape in Kochanowski’s Latin poetry and proposes the emendation of what must have been a printer’s error.
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Słowa kluczowe Piotr (Peter) Lachmann

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This article analyzes the poetic imagery of the bilingual, Polish-German, author Piotr (Peter) Lachmann. The key images of his poems bring into focus the problem of keeping up the ties between the world of the living and the world of the dead. Lachmann’s term for this kind of remembrance, made possible by the abundance of pictorial records (photography, fi lm) that transcend the linear axis of time, is ‘sepulchral humanism’. While examining the relations between sacrum and profanum in Lachmann’s verse, the article also notes their contamination by depictions that draw on the aesthetics of disgust and ugliness. Finally, the article discusses the German themes in Lachmann’s poetry and his intellectual bond with Tadeusz Różewicz, a poet and playwright with a better understanding of German culture than most Polish writers of his (post-war) generation.
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Abstrakt

Giorgio Maria Ciaceri was a Jesuit missionary from Sicily who spent about ten years in North Africa during the mid Nineteenth century. From his Jesuit center located near Algiers, he travelled all over Algeria and arrived until Tunis where he spent the last period of his journey. His travelogue, published in 1885–86, is almost unknown to scholarly research and is a very rich source for anthropological, ethnographical, historical, social, religious and linguistic information about the countries and the cultures he visited. The present article deals with his travelogue and attempts to draw the attention to some aspects of his work and in particular to the linguistic issues that it contains.
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Against the usual assumption that Arabic grammatical operators based on reflexes of šay derive from the Arabic word for ‘thing’ šayʔ, it is argued here that indefinite quantifiers and partitives instead derive from an existential particle šay that is present in some spoken Arabic dialects of the Arabian Gulf, Om an, and the Yemen. The ambiguity of the existential particle in constructions in which it sets off items in a series lends itself to its reanalysis as a quantifier, and its ambiguity as a quantifier motivates its reanalysis as a partitive. This is consistent with grammaticalization theory, whereby lexical forms give rise to grammatical forms, which themselves give rise to even more grammatical forms. Yet, existential šay likely did not arise from a lexical form. Instead, it is either a borrowing from Modern South Arabian or it is an inherited Semitic feature, ultimately deriving from an attention-focusing demonstrative. Either way, the grammaticalization of a quantitative šī/šē/šay cannot have proceeded directly from word ‘thing’. To the contrary, the word šayʔ meaning ‘thing’ can easily derive from an indefinite quantifier or partitive šay, in a process of degrammaticalization.
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Abstrakt

In his article on the one hand the author gives an edition of three letters of the pioneer of archaeology in Finland, J.R. Aspelin (1842–1915), to the ethnographer and editor of the journal Globus, Richard Andree (1835–1912), form the years 1890–1892, and on the other hand describes the role of Aspelin in the history of the “pre-history” of Old Turkic studies.
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Abstrakt

More than 30 years ago Andrzej Zaborski (1983; 1987 {1983}) collected and analyzed all Cushitic and Omotic numerals, which were described in his time, and tried to analyze their internal structure. His two pioneering studies stimulated the present attempt to collect all available relevant data about Omotic numerals and to analyze them in both genetic (Afroasiatic) and areal (Cushitic, Ethio-Semitic and Nilo-Saharan) perspectives, all at the contemporary level of our knowledge. With respect to the long mutual interference between various groups of Cushitic and Omotic languages, it is necessary to study the numerals in both the language families together. The presented material is organized in agreement with the genetic classification of these languages. On the basis of concrete forms in individual languages the protoforms in partial groups are reconstructed, if it is possible, and these partial protoforms of numerals in the daughter protolanguages are finally compared to determine the inherited forms. The common cognates are finally compared with parallels in other Afroasiatic branches, if exist, or with counterparts in Ethio-Semitic or Nilo-Saharan languages, if they could be borrowed from or adapted into the Cushitic or Omotic languages.
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Building on the argument of an earlier contribution of James K. Aitken (2000), this article aims to explain why the Greek toponym Σαττιν does not translate the word הַ שּׁ טּים (Shittim) in LXX Micah 6:5. The Massoretic text reads ‘from Shittim to Gilgal’. The LXX translator uses σχοῖνος to appeal to all readerships. While the educated reader is aware of the location and significance of Shittim, these might not be obvious for the less educated majority. As the meaning of σχοῖνος varies (rush, reed, bramble, thorn, and a type of measure used in Egypt, or even a more generic bush), its interpretation changes as one contemplates in context each of these meanings. Ultimately, the simplest audience could read this extension of time/space of ἀπὸ τῶν σχοίνων ἕως τοῦ Γαλγαλ as referring to the whole history of Exodus, from the burning bush to Gilgal.
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East Dangla and West Dangla, two dialects of the Dangla language which belongs to the Chadic language family, differ substantially in their tone systems. In numerous lexical items, entire or partial tonal inversions are observable. Earlier research has not succeeded in boiling this down to regular sound correspondences. In the meantime, data from Central Dangla as a third dialect have become available, which provide important insights into the matter. Based on all available materials, a new attempt to establish the tonal correspondences is undertaken here. This results in a reconstruction of the tone system of Proto-Dangla, the hypothetical ancestor of the modern varieties, together with a chronological elaboration of the tonal changes that occurred in the individual dialects.
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This article is a presentation of the EtymArab© project, a start-up (“zero”) version of an etymological dictionary of Modern Standard Arabic. Taking the etymology of some generosity-related lexical items as examples, the study introduces the reader to the guiding ideas behind the project and the online dictionary’s basic features.
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Malgré sa valeur symbolique, il est étonnant de constater la totale absence du personnage biblique de Lamech et de ses péripéties dans toute la création littéraire de notre culture judéo-chrétienne; à l’inverse de ce qu’on remarque à propos de son aïeul Caïn, dont la tradition biblique a inspiré de nombreuses oeuvres. Seule la littérature apocryphe judéochrétienne a su développer la dimension symbolique de ce personnage. Nous voulons attirer l’attention sur les principaux traits de cette figure biblique, placée à l’aube de la violence développée de nos jours par ses contemporains ‘Enfants de Lamech’, traits qui attendent toujours leur moderne réélaboration littéraire: libération sexuelle, progrès technique, violence incontrôlée.
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Abstrakt

Many Haitian writers since the earthquake that destroyed Port-au-Prince in January 2010 have developed in their works of fiction the theme of writing the disaster, expressing it in various forms. The aim of this paper is to analyze the strategies adopted to write about the psychological and social effects of the cataclysmic event in two post-earthquake novels, Marvin Victor’s Corps mêlés (2011) and Makenzy Orcel’s Les Immortelles (2010). In questioning the relationship between literature and the present-time, the two Haitian writers chose different styles and forms to transpose into fiction the disruptions caused by the earthquake. We will focus our attention on two narrative strategies in particular: the interior monologue chosen by Victor and the hybrid narration preferred by Orcel.
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