Literary periodicals promoting young writers played a major role in the formation of a distinct generational consciousness during the occupation and in the post-war period. They included Sztuka i Naród [Art and the Nation] (1942–1944), Walka [Combat] and Inaczej [Contrarily] (1945), Pokolenie [ The Generation] (1946–1947), Nurt [The Current] (1947), Po prostu [ Plain and Simple] (1949–1955), Wyboje [ Bumps] (1956–1957), Zebra (1957–1958), Orientacja (1965–1971) and Nowy Wyraz [New Expression] (1972–1981). The young writers’ literary magazines were the product of the shifting political environment and generational change.
The aim of this paper is to discuss possible connections between the categories of mind and life. Some authors argue that life and mind are closely connected or even are two sides of the same phenomenon. I analyze and examine this thesis in the light of different approaches to defining life: the metabolic approach (which stresses the importance of self-maintenance and self-making) and the evolutionary approach (which focuses on evolution by natural selection). The first way of defining life is Maturana and Varela' conception of autopoiesis, the second is Korzeniewski's cybernetic definition of life and van Hateren's modified Darwinian definition of life. Especially interesting is the possibility of connecting mind and life in the evolutionary framework. The text does not provide exact results, but rather it proposes possible modes of thinking of the relation of these two categories.
The Finns built a goal-oriented policy of lifelong guidance, which promotes not only the climate of constant learning, but also the development of knowledge and skills. The Finnish success is related to the changes in the contemporary world. It relies on the perfect recognition of skills and competences, which are needed in society of the future due to the different working conditions, which students and employees of XXI century have to face.
Autor podjął próbę odpowiedzi na pytanie: czy i jak możliwa jest refleksja nad istnieniem? Wbrew ugruntowanej tradycją tezie, odrzuca on pogląd, zgodnie z którym Parmenidejskie pojęcie bytu ma charakter egzystencjalny. Twierdzi, że Parmenides, a za nim myśl starożytna, byt pojmuje poprzez określoność, a więc jako „coś”. Utrzymuje przy tym, że pojęcie „istnienia” na trwałe pojawiło się w myśli europejskiej dopiero w filozofii św. Tomasza z Akwinu. W proponowanym przez siebie rozumieniu autor utożsamia istnienie z mnogościąi różnorodnością prezentujących się momentów, które w porządku myślenia wyraża słówko „coś” (το ον), czyli pojęcie bytu. W przedstawionym ujęciu autor nie oddziela bytu od jego bycia. Tym samym refleksja nad bytem jest zarazem refleksją nad istnieniem.
The everyday life of residents of the big and small towns and villages is still in the centre of the permanent interests not only of scientific circles but also of local communities understood in the broadest sense. Being an important trade and academic centre of the Polish Republic of several cultures and confessions, the 17th-century town of Zamość is also an interesting subject of researches of various aspects of everyday life. In spite of the existence of many early elaborations, the problem in question still needs to be studied. Undertaking an attempt of making a reconstruction of fragments of the baroque Zamość ’ residents’ colourful everyday life, the author concentrates particularly on such aspects as ceremonies of the guilds or residents’ participation in religious ceremonies. He also analyzes daily squabbles and quarrels, attemps of their mitigations, minor and serious offenses, court judgments as well as ways of punishments. Since rumours indicating how information shaping a public opin- ion is spread, they seem to be an important element of everyday life too. A special place is also reserved for an entertainment; for it not only accompanies residents at different stages of their professional and social activities but also brings all of their affairs to an end. The article is based on a driary written in 1656–72 by Bazyli Rudomicz, a Zamość townsman and Professor of the Zamość Academy, and on other sources.
This paper presents an outline of the relationship between the categories of living individual, organism and life. I argue that although these categories are related with each other and often treated as the same, we should strive for their separation. The main argument for the distinction between the individual and life is of a methodological character: the definitions of life are mainly interested for astrobiologists and scientists working in the field of origin of life or artificial life, while the individual is important, among others, in standard evolutionary biology and ecology. Among the concepts of living individual various forms of evolutionary definition (individual as a unit of selection) currently dominate. The living individual understood in this way is not identical with a structurally limited and functionally integrated self-sustained entity, which is usually called “organism.” Moreover, the explanatory success of the evolutionary concept of individual, in my opinion, implies the adoption of some version of the evolutionary definition of life. In the last part of this paper I propose a process-evolutionary definition of life, which also indicates a relationship between the three aforementioned categories.
The paper presents an approach to evaluating a building throughout its whole life cycle in relation to its sustainable development. It describes basic tools and techniques of evaluating and analysing the costs in the whole life cycle of the building, such as Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Management, Life Cycle Cost and Social Life Cycle Assessment. The aim of the paper is to propose a model of cost evaluation throughout the building life cycle. The model is based on the fuzzy sets theory which allows the calculations to include the risks associated with the sustainable development, with the management of the investment and with social costs. Costs incurred in the subsequent phases of the building life cycle are analysed and modelled separately by means of a membership function. However, the effect of the analysis is a global cost evaluation for the whole life cycle of the building.
Searching and exploring the motives of continuing in the profession may be an important objective of efforts undertaken by researchers and people directly responsible for the organization and quality of work. Identifying the needs and expectations of the employee is an important element of her/his adaptation in the work environment. Because the age of life is one of the factors affecting the perception of the world and work, in this article motives of continuing professional activity in group of special educators are described in the age of life context.
This work is a contribution to understanding the philosophical dimension of the breakthrough that took place in the 20th century historical natural science as a result of the extrapolation of Darwin’s idea of evolution to the area of inanimate matter and the formulation on this basis of a number of theories of pre-biological chemical evolution. The revealed results are the inaccurate recognition of the philosophical foundations of the broadly understood science of evolution: on the one hand, for scientists-naturalists, and on the other, in a much broader, social dimension of their research.
Biology is a science on life. This definition, concise and most commonly used, is satisfactory for almost everybody. It is otherwise when one asks: What is life? Then it appears that no one feature can be indicated which distinguishes “the living” from “the non-living.” The author presents the sources of these difficulties and then gives his own attempt to solve the problem of definition of live—which is based on the idea of levels of the biological organization. In author’s view, to characterise the objects of research in biology we should apply not one concept of life (or of living organism) but three concepts: of organized biological matter (for the molecular and sub-cellular levels), of living organism (for the level of the specimen), and of life (for the sphere of phenomena which occur on the population-species-biocenotic level).
Artykuł stanowi pionierską próbę przedstawienia sylwetki czasopisma „Ilustracja Polska” — pierwszego nowoczesnego polskiego tygodnika ilustrowanego, poświęconego chwili bieżącej (jednocześnie pierwszego tego typu magazynu w Galicji). Nieopracowane dotąd pismo wydawane było przez Ludwika Szczepańskiego w Krakowie w latach 1901–1904. W tekście omówiono genezę, typografię i szatę graficzną tygodnika, zawartość treści oraz wydawnictwa dodatkowe (kalendarze, ilustrowany album o Wawelu). Zwrócono także uwagę na nieznane do tej pory zagadnienie pierwszej polskiej wystawy fotograficznej, zorganizowanej staraniem redakcji „Ilustracji Polskiej” w Krakowie w roku 1902.
The aim of the paper is to shed light on the theoretical background of the inclusion of health in the standard of living studies, and the use of two of its specifi c measures — life expectancy at birth and body height. Hence, the article describes the idea of capabilities and functionings developed by Amartya Sen as a proposed solution to the limitations of the classic measurement of the standard of living.
In this paper, the analysis of carbon footprint values for children’s footwear was conducted. This group of products is characterized by similar small mass and diversity in the used materials. The carbon footprint is an environmental indicator, which is used to measure the total sets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere caused by a product throughout its entire lifecycle. The complexity of carbon footprint calculation methodology is caused by multistage production process. The probability of emission greenhouse gases exists at each of these stages. Moreover, a large variety of footwear materials – both synthetic and natural, give the possibility of the emission of a lot of waste, sewage and gases, which can be dangerous to the environment. The diversity of materials could be the source of problems with the description of their origins, which make carbon footprint calculations difficult, especially in cases of complex supply chains. In this paper, with use of life cycle assessment, the carbon footprint was calculated for 4 children’s footwear types (one with an open upper and three with full uppers). The life cycles of the product were divided into 8 stages: raw materials extraction (stage 1), production of input materials (stage 2), footwear components manufacture (stage 3), footwear manufacture (stage 4), primary packaging manufacture (stage 5), footwear distribution to customers (stage 6), use phase (stage 7) and product’s end of life (stage 8). On these grounds, it was possible to point out the life cycle stages, where the optimization activities can be implemented in order to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. The obtained results showed that the most intensive corrective actions should be focused on the following stages: 3 (the higher emissivity), 4 and 8.
The article deals with one of the most pressing topics in bioethics, namely the attitude to abortion. The author focuses on the interpretation of this practice as a kind of conflict between a woman and the fetus that she gestates (this conflict concerns women’s rights and duties to the fetus, its interests, and the moral status of the fetus in general). Considering several variants of arguments which protect women’s right to abortion (primarily utilitarian arguments based on analogy), the author tries to identify the structure of argumentation. Finally, she presents her own argument against the practice of terminating pregnancy.
This article confronts the text of A Literary Prize, a comedy by Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska, with its contemporary reviews. Staged by the experimental theatre Reduta (directed by Zofia Modrzewska) in April 1937 at Teatr Nowy in Warsaw (under the directorship of Jerzy Leszczyński), it fell into complete oblivion which lasted until the recent discovery of the director’s copy buried at the Academy of Theatre Library in Warsaw. While contemporary reviewers found A Literary Prize to be one of the weaker works of an outstanding poet, Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska in her letters contrasted the ‘violent attacks’ of the critics with a fairly warm reception of the general audience. The play was performed to capacity audiences until 19 May, and revived for a single occasion a year later in Poznań. A Literary Prize juxtaposes two plots. One, with elements of comedy of manners, follows the fortunes of a young girl, Taida Serebrzycka, who tries to navigate between two men with literary ambitions, Klemens Niedzicki and Albin Niekawski, while the other explores the challenges faced by prospective writers, especially the role of prize-winning competitions in the discovery of talent and the building of reputation. This article is focused primarily on the character of Taida, who makes the impression of being somewhat scatterbrained and snobbish, but is in fact a strong-minded, independent young woman conscious of her sexuality. She wants an honest, equal relationship, and is ready to fi ght hard for her happiness, which does include sexual satisfaction. The analysis of the reception of Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska’s play, and especially the characterization of Taida, the female protagonist, is complemented with an examination of the mechanisms of the critical discourse.