Water samples were collected at 12 oceanographic stations from six standard depths ranging from 0 to 100 and 150 m. The number of bacteria and concentration of organic components were expressed in adequate units per 1 litre of sea water and in the form of the integrated values for the whole water column under I m2 of sea of organic components were expressed in adequate units per 1 litre of sea water and in the form of the integrated values for the whole water column under 1 m2 of sea surface. Total numbers of bacteria (TC) ranged from 0.16 to 7.31 x 107/1 and 1.74 — 5.67 x 10, 2/m2 saprophytic bacteria (CFU) 0.10 — 46.85 x 103/1 and 0.62 — 27.7x 108/m2. contents of particulate organic carbon (РОС) 0.02 — 0.25 mg/1 and 3.5 — 20.0 g/m2 dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 0.07 — 3.02 mg/1 and 53.5 — 207.9 g/m2, dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) 0 — 1.8965 μmol/1 and 2.7 -151.5 mmol/m2, dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) 0 2.9366 μmо1/1 and 16.5— 163.5 mmol/m2, particulate combined amino acids (PCAA) 0 — 3.0215 μmо1/1 and 3.7 — 249.0 mmol/m2. Total numbers of bacteria and РОС, DOC and DCAA concentrations, widely differentiated in the investigated area, were on the average much lower than the values obtaine in previous years. The saprophytic bacteria content and DFAA and PCAA concentrations were at a similar level to that in the past years. Higher TC and CFU values were observed in the areas with high concentrations of phytoioplankton to the NW of Anvers I. and around Clarence I.
On the basis of elemental composition, optical properties in the visible region, infrared spectra and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA), humic acids of tundra soils in Spitsbergen are found to be more similar to fulvic acids than to humic acids of soils from other soil-climatic zones. The authors claim that it results from climatic conditions (low temperature, considerable humidity, alternation of freezing and thawing) and specific biochemical composition of tundra plants (predominance of plants devoid of lignin) which constitute substratum of the studied humic acids.
This year we are celebrating 150 anniversary of the discovery of DNA by Friedrich Miescher. His finding initiated a series of discoveries that allowed to depicts life's most famous molecule with novel features with considerable biological interest. In this article we recall the biggest mile stones of 150-year history of DNA and present the context and meaning of several key observations that have brought us closer to understanding DNA. 150 years ago, people had no idea that DNA existed, and they certainly hadn’t heard of DNA structure and sequencing. We now know that DNA is a dynamic, tortuous coil, constantly shuffling and unwinding. Today DNA is all around us, in a physical sense and in a cultural sense. It is really part of our culture. We will discuss also the little known facts, often overlooked in similar discussions. We will focus particularly on Professor Richard Altmann's from Iława, whose contribution to knowledge about nucleic acids is significant, although not well recognized so far.
In broiler chickens, the relationship between dietary supplementation of vitamin C and hepatic, cardiac and renal heat shock proteins (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90), heat shock factors (HSF-1 and HSF-3) and enzymatic antioxidants requires further investigation. The current study aimed to investigate this relationship at cellular and molecular levels in a 42 days experiment. Two hundred, one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allocated into four equal groups. Chicks in the first and third groups were thermo-neutral (TN; 22°C for 24 hours/day) and fed basal diet without or with vitamin C (1g/kg basal diet), respectively. Chicks in the second and fourth groups were heat stressed (HS; 34°C for 8 hours/day) and fed basal diet without or with vitamin C, respectively. Performance parameters were recorded throughout the experiment. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), Catalase (CAT) and gene expression of heat shock proteins (HSP60, 70 and 90) and heat shock factors (HSF 1 and 3) were analyzed in liver, heart and kidney tissues of the studied groups. Heat stress induced a negative impact on performance parameters, significant reduction in activities of all examined antioxidant enzymes and a significant up-regulation in heat shock proteins and factors genes in all studied tissues. Dietary supplementation of vitamin C corrected these parameters towards the normal control values. Conclusively, dietary supplementation of the examined dose of vitamin C was efficient at ameliorating the detrimental effects of heat stress on liver, heart and kidney tissues of broilers chickens at cellular and molecular levels.
In the present study, the effects of 10, 20, 30 ppm hormone mixtures (indole-3-acetic acid + gibberellic acid + kinetin) with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ppm zinc (Zn) concentrations alone and their mixtures on the cambial activity of sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris Miller) cuttings were investigated. Morphological and anatomical developments of the plants were observed. The leaves of the plants treated with zinc were found to be greener than the control. Plants treated with zinc faded earlier than the control. The cambial zone thickness, the cambial zone cell line, the radial and tangential lengths of the cambial zone cells decreased with increasing concentrations of zinc and increased with increasing concentrations of hormones. The radial and tangential wall widths of the cambial zone cells increased with increasing zinc concentrations and decreased with increasing hormone concentrations. As a result, in the 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ppm Zn concentrations, the cambial zone thickness decreased by 10, 28, 50 and 65%, respectively, compared to the control. Thirty ppm hormone mixture – H.M. (indole-3-acetic acid + gibberellic acid + kinetin) increased the cambial zone thickness by 65, 15, 5% in 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 Zn, respectively, compared to the control. It was found that plant hormones importantly improved the harmful effects of zinc on the cambial activity of the plant cuttings.
The research was focused on the selection of the best conditions for the lactic acid production. As the organic source diluted waste whey was used. Two facultative anaerobic bacteria strains were examined: Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactococcus lactis. The neeed of anaerobic conditions as well as mineral supplementation of cultivationwere investigated. It turned out that the oxidationwas not the key parameter, but cultivationmediumneeded a supplementation for higher process efficiency. Finally, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain was selected, for which LA production was app. 45% higher than for Lc. lactis. On the other hand, Lactobacillus rhamnosus was active at higher lactose concentration, thus waste whey needed to be less diluted. Additionally, high values of product/substrate yield coefficient make the process very efficient.
Effects of fermented extruded rye flour supplements with Lactobacillus sakei KTU05-6 or Pediococcus pentosaceus BaltBio02 on milk production and composition, as well as ruminal parameters, were determined in Lithuanian Black & White dairy cows. Also, determination of antimicrobial activities of tested lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against a variety of pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial strains previously isolated from diseased cattle was performed. The highest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated in L. sakei against S. aureus, and in P. pentosaceus against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The count of LAB in the supplements after 72 h of fermentation of extruded rye flour with L. sakei and P. pentosaceus was 9.6±0.4 log10 CFU/g and 9.5±0.3 log10 CFU/g, respectively. All cows (n=60) were fed the same basal diet. The treatment differences were achieved by individually incorporating (65 d.) one of the supplements: L. sakei KTU05-6 (group B; n=20) or P. pentosaceus BaltBio02 (group C; n=20). The control group A (n=20) was on the basal diet only. A supplement fermented with L. sakei does not have a significant influence on dairy cattle milk production and rumen fluid parameters. The type of LAB used has a significant influence (p<0.0001) on microbiological parameters of the rumen (TCM, TCL, TCE). The milk yield was increased (p≤0.05) using P. pentosaceus BaltBio02 supplement, and further research is needed to identify w hat is the main mechanism of the positive action.
Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, concentrations of uric acid in the surface waters of two non-glaciated catchments (Fugle and Dynamisk) on Spitsbergen were measured. Measurements of specific conductivity enabled us to perform tests on the dissolution of the carbonate rocks present in both catchments in both natural and aqueous solutions of uric acid. Samples of calcium urate were made and its water solubility determined. Given a knowledge of concentrations of uric acid, calcium ions and calcium urate solubility product, an estimate of the role of uric acid in the dissolution of carbonate rocks was possible. Uric acid increases the dissolution of carbonate rocks by c. 12.5% in case of the Fugle catchment and 7% in Dynamisk.
Eco-friendly leather processes based on the usage of natural products have become a potentially attractive issue for leather industry during the last few decades. Synthetic protective chemicals like bactericides used in most soaking process are known as hazardous substances and cause tannery effluents with high concentrations of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). In the present study, the effect of tannic acid on microorganisms, skin, wool and effluent were investigated in order to demonstrate the applicability of tannic acid in soaking process instead of commonly used bactericides. The bacterial load (cfu/ml), COD and Nitrogen Content (N) of the soaking effluents and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) content of skins and wools were investigated. Application of 0.5 and 1 wt% tannic acid concentrations was more effective than commercial bactericide, while comparable results were achieved by 0.1 and 0.3 wt% tannic acid. The application of tannic acid for soaking process resulted in lower COD and N values of effluents. The results show that tannic acid has the potential to be an alternative, eco-friendly bactericide for leather industry by reducing the pollution of leather soaking process.
Silica multichannel monoliths modified with zirconia, titania and alumina have been used as reactive cores of microreactors and studied in chemoselective reduction (MPV) of cyclohexanon/benzaldehyde with 2-butanol as a hydrogen donor. The attachment of metal oxides to the silica surface was confirmed by FT–IR spectroscopy, and dispersion of metal oxides was studied by UV–Vis spectroscopy. the catalytic activity of the lewis acid centres in both chemical processes decreased in the order zirconia > alumina > titania. This activity is in good agreement with dispersion and coordination of metal species. good stability of zirconia-grafted reactors was confirmed. high porosity of the monoliths and the presence of large meandering flow-through channels with a diameter of ca. 30 mm facilitate fluid transport and very effective mixing in the microreactors. The whole synthesis process is perfectly in line with trends of modern flow chemistry
The paper deals with the impact of co-firing biomass with coal in boilers on the dew point of the flue gas. Co-firing of biomass may have twofold implications on corrosion and fouling, which are the processes that determine the lowest acceptable flue gas outlet temperature and as a result, boiler efficiency. Both phenomena may be reduced by co-firing of usually low sulphur biomasses or enhanced due to increased moisture content of biomass leading to increased water dew point. The present study concerns the problem of low-temperature corrosion in utility boilers. The paper gives (in the form of diagrams and equations) a relationship between water dew point and moisture content of fuel mixture when co-firing coal and various biomasses. The regression analysis shows that despite significant differences in the characteristics of coals and these of additional fuels, which are planned for co-firing in large-scale power boilers, the water dew point can be described by a function given with the accuracy, which shall be satisfactory for engineering purposes. The discussion of the properties of biofuels indicates that the acid dew point surplus over the water dew point (Δtr = tr - twr) is not likely to exceed 10 K when co-firing biomass. The concluding remarks give recommendations for the appropriate operation of boilers in order to reduce risks associated with biomass co-combustion.
The possibility of producing 3-aminobenzyl alcohol and 3-aminobenzaldehyde by oxidation of 3-aminotoluene with ozone in the solution of acetic anhydrite in the presence of manganese (II) acetate, potassium bromide and sulfuric acid has been shown. The catalytic systems for regulating selectivity and depth of substrate oxidation has been developed. The catalytic system Mn(OAc)₂ – Ac₂0 – H₂SO₄ promotes the formation of alcohol (65.5%) and 3- acetylaminobenzylidendiacetate (20.1%) with the system Mn(OAc)₂ – KBr – Ac₂O – H2SO₄ increases oxidation selectivity on the methyl group to 90.8% producing mainly aldehyde (80.8%) The optimum temperature of selective oxidation of 3– aminotoluene with the ozone – air mixture (30°C) which is much lower than that of oxidation by the known methods (120°-240°C) and the optimum rations of the reagents concentrations: for alcohol synthesis – [ArCH3] : [Mn(OAc)₂] : [H₂SO₄] =1 : 0.2 : 2.5; for aldehyde synthesis –[ ArCH3]: [Mn(OAc)₂] : [KBr] aldehyde synthesis – [ArCH3] : [Mn(OAc)₂] : [KBr] : [H₂SO₄] = 1:0.2:2.5 have been determined.
The paper presents the research results for the soils sampled from the area located in the eastern part of the Chodzieskie Lakes, between the Middle Noteć River Valley and the Wełna River Valley, the right tributary of the Warta River. The research involved 7 soil samples from the surface horizons, allocated to the cultivation of various plant species (cereals and vegetable crops). The following were determined in the soil material: the content of phytoavailable forms of selected heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe and Mn, active and available to plants phosphorus against the activity of selected oxydo-reduction and hydrolytic enzymes. The soil under the vegetable crops showed a very high richness in phosphorus available to plants, which must have been related to an intensive fertilisation. There were identified relatively low contents of the available forms of the heavy metals investigated, the fact that points to their natural content in soil, which triggered the inhibition of neither the oxydo-reduction nor hydrolytic enzymes.
A ceria loaded carbon nanotubes (CeO2/CNTs) nanocomposites photocatalyst was prepared by chemical precipitation, and the preparation conditions were optimized using an orthogonal experiment method. HR-TEM, XRD, UV-Vis/DRS, TGA and XPS were used to characterize the photocatalyst. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption was employed to determine the BET specific surface area. The results indicated that the photocatalyst has no obvious impurities. CeO2 was dispersed on the carbon nanotubes with a good loading effect and high loading efficiency without agglomeration. The catalyst exhibits a strong ability to absorb light in the ultraviolet region and some ability to absorb light in the visible light region. The CeO2/CNTs nanocomposites photocatalyst was used to degrade azo dye Acid Orange 7 (40 mg/L). The optical decolorization rate was 66.58% after xenon lamp irradiation for 4 h, which is better than that of commercial CeO2 (43.13%). The results suggested that CeO2 loading on CNTs not only enhanced the optical decolorization rate but also accelerated the separation of CeO2/CNTs and water.
The compost derived from cellulosic material coming from the Public Utility Company in Zabrze (Poland) was investigated for its capability for adsorbing acid dyes from aqueous solution at various concentrations of the dyes and the compost dosages. Four acid dyes were investigated: Acid Red 18 (AR-18), Acid Blue 9 (AB-9), Acid Green 16 (AG-16) and Acid Black 1 (ABk-1). The adsorption isotherms were determined by comparing the experimental data with the isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich models). The sorption capacity of the compost depended on the initial concentrations of dyes in the solution, compost dosage, and on the structure of dyes. The maximum sorption capacities of the compost for adsorbing particular dyes may be ordered as follows: ABk-1 > AG-16 > AB-9 > AR-18. The amounts of bound and the percentages of removed acid dyes from effluent depended on the adsorbent dosage. The growth of the dye removal percentages with growing adsorbent mass may be attributed to the growth of the adsorbent uptake surface with growth of the adsorbent mass. The dyes were bound onto the surface of compost through the electrostatic interaction between the surface (negatively charged at pH > pHPZC) and the dye cations (AG-16), and/or through the hydrogen bond between the functional groups of the humic matter in compost (–OH, –COOH) and the functional surface groups of AR-18, AB-9 and ABk-1 dyes (–OH, –NH2 ). At the experiment conditions, the Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduskevich adsorption isotherm models fitted the equilibrium data very well (much better than the Langmuir one). The values of 1/n in the Freundlich equation and E in the Dubinin-Raduskevich one indicate the favourable adsorption. The studied compost may be used as a low-cost sorbent for the removal of acid dyes from wastewater released by textile industries. However, elevated values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the final solutions may enhance the solubility of humic compounds.
We examined whether allelochemical stress leads to increased lipoxygenase activity in roots of sweet maize (Zea mays L. ssp. saccharata), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and radish (Raphanus sativum L. var. radicula). The lipoxygenase activity of soluble and membrane-bound fractions was assessed in roots after exposure to ferulic and p-coumaric acids. Lipid peroxidation and membrane injury were determined as indicators of stress. Increased lipoxygenase activity of both studied fractions was followed by lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane injury. The results suggest the key role of lipoxygenase in plasma membrane injury during allelochemical stress caused by administration of hydroxycinnamic acids.
Humification plays an important role in stabilization of organic matter in soils of the cryolithic zone. In this context, the degree of organic matter stabilization has been assessed, using instrumental methods, for permafrost peat soils of the eastern European Arctic, based on selected plots from within the Komi Republic (Russian Federation). Humic substances (HSs) isolated from the mire permafrost peats of the forest-tundra subzone of the European Arctic have been characterized in terms of molecular composition. This was accomplished using elemental and amino acid fragments (AAFs) composition. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) spectroscopy was utilized to identify the structure of HSs. Changes in the molar x(H) : x(C) ratio, ratio of aromatic to paraffin fragments and ratio of hydroxy AAFs to heterocyclic AAFs along the peat profiles have been revealed. They are due to the activation of cryogenic processes in the upper part of the seasonally thawing layer, the natural selection of condensed humic molecules, the botanical composition and degree of degradation of peat, which reflect the climatic features of the area in the Holocene. Humic acids and fulvic acids of the peat soils showed the prevalence of compounds with a low degree of condensation and a low portion of aromatic fragments. The aromaticity degree showed the trend to increase within the depth. Changes of quantitative and qualitative parameters of specific organic compounds occur at the permafrost boundary of peatlands, which can serve as an indicator of recent climate changes in environments from the high latitudes. The presented data can be useful in the evaluation of soil organic matter stabilization degree in the active layer and below the permafrost table.
Petiole bending in detached leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum was intensively investigated in relation to polar auxin transport in petioles. When detached leaves were placed leaf blade face down, clear petiole bending was observed. On the other hand, no petiole bending was found when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face up. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) exogenously applied to petioles was significantly effective to induce and/or stimulate petiole bending when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face down. To clarify the mechanisms of petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum when they were placed leaf blade face down, the effects of application of IAA, ethephon which is an ethylene releasing compound, inhibitors of polar auxin transport such as 2,3,5-tiiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were thoroughly investigated. Ethephon was not effective to enhance petiole bending, suggesting that ethylene derived from exogenously applied IAA does not play an important role in petiole bending in detachd leaves of B. calycinum. This suggestion was strongly supported by the fact that ethephon exogenously applied to petioles in intact plant of B. calycinum had no effect on inducing epinasty and/or hyponasty either (Ueda et al., 2018). Potent inhibitors of polar auxin transport, TIBA and HFCA, and JA-Me were extremely effective to inhibit petiole bending but NPA was not. Almost no petiole bending was observed in excised petiole segments without the leaf blade. Applicaton of IAA to the cut surface of petioles in the leaf blade side strongly promoted petiole bending. Polar auxin transport in excised petioles of B. calycinum was intensively investigated using radiolabeled IAA ([1-14C] IAA). Clear polar auxin transport was observed in excised petiole segments, indicating that auxin allows movement in one direction: from the leaf blade side to the stem side in petioles. When detached leaves were placed only leaf blade face down, transported 14C-IAA was reduced in the lower side of the excised petioles. These results strongly suggest that transport and/or lateral movement of endogenous auxin biosynthesized or produced in the leaf blade are necessary to induce petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum. Mechanisms of petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum are also discussed in relation to polar auxin transport and lateral movement of auxin.
We investigated the germination requirements of Androsace villosa L. (Hairy Androsace), which spreads on limestone or granite screes or ledges of rocky or turfy slopes and hilltops of the alpine zone. With seeds collected from Uludag Mt. (Bursa, Turkey, 2200-2300 m a.s.l.), germination was studied in fresh seeds, seeds subjected to short-time moist chilling (15 d, +4°C), to GA3 (100, 150 and 250 ppm), and to chilling plus GA3. The hormone and moist chilling treatments were carried out in continuous darkness (20°C) and under a 12 h photoperiod at 20/10°C. Seeds maintained in darkness gave higher germination percentages than seeds maintained under a photoperiod. Germination rates rose to 90-97% with 100-250 ppm GA3 and short-time moist chilling in continuous darkness (20°C). Seeds germinated rapidly under a combination of GA3 and short-time moist chilling in continuous darkness, generally giving the lowest mean germination times (4.4-5.0 d) among the treatments.
During the research interaction of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) in epinasty and/or hyponasty, as well as petiole growth of Bryophyllum calycinum were investigated. Exogenously applied IAA as a lanolin paste was extremely effective to induce epinasty and/or hyponasty accompanied with petiole elongation in intact B. calycinum. Application of IAA around or to the upper side of the petiole was much more effective than that to the lower side, suggesting that petiole epidermal cells on the adaxial side of B. calycinum are more sensitive and/or susceptive to IAA than those on the abaxial one. This is supported by the fact that not only the second curvature but also the first one in B. calycinum was enhanced by application of IAA to the upper side of the petiole. The degree of epinasty and/or hyponasty induced by IAA is strongly related to the increase of petiole growth. On the other hand, JA-Me significantly inhibited IAA-inducing epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth in intact B. calycinum. When detached leaves with petioles were placed leaf blade face down, clear petiole bending was observed. However, no petiole bending was found when detached leaves were placed leaf blade face up. Exogenously applied IAA to petioles was significantly effective to induce and/or stimulate petiole bending in placing detached leaves of B. calycinum face down but ethephon was not, suggesting that transport and/or movement of endogenous auxin produced in the leaf blade are necessary to induce petiole bending in detached leaves of B. calycinum and that ethylene derived from exogenously applied IAA does not play an important role in epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole bending in B. calycinum. The mechanisms of IAA-enhancing and JA-Me-inhibiting epinasty and/or hyponasty, and petiole growth are intensively discussed.
This study examined the effects of UV-B radiation and allelochemical stress induced by ferulic acid (FA) on the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 18.104.22.168) at metabolic and molecular levels in two cucumber genotypes differing in tolerance to cold and disease, in order to determine any interaction between stress effects and genotype response. Stresses were applied simultaneously, sequentially, and singly. In both genotypes, several days of UV radiation retarded growth up to 36%. The effect of FA was not significant. The response to a particular stress, including the effect on PAL activation, was enhanced by simultaneous application of the two stresses. PAL transcription was not correlated with the increase of PAL activity. Exposure to UV-B, FA, and combined UV-B and FA was detrimental to both genotypes but to different extents. The response was not correlated with the genotype of cold and disease sensitivity. PAL activity and its transcription seem to be involved in UV and allelochemical stress, but not related to the plants' tolerance of these stresses.