A mixed pseudo-orthogonal frequency coding (Mixed-POFC) structure is proposed as a new spreadspectrum technique in this paper, which employs frequency and time diversity to enhance tag properties and balances the spectrum utilization and code diversity. The coding method of SAW RFID tags in this paper uses Mixed-POFC with multi-track chip arrangements. The cross-correlation and auto correlation of Mixed-POFC and POFC are calculated to demonstrate the reduced overlap between the adjacent center frequencies with the Mixed-POFC method. The center frequency of the IDT and Bragg reflectors is calculated by a coupling of modes (COM) module. The combination of the calculation results of the Bragg reflectors shows that compared with a 7-chip POFC, the coding number of a 7-chip Mixed-POFC is increased from 120 to 144 with the same fractional bandwidth of 12%. To demonstrate the validity of Mixed-POFC, finite element analysis (FEA) technology is used to analyze the frequency characteristics of Mixed-POFC chips. The maximum error between designed frequencies and simulation frequencies is only 1.7%, which verifies that the Mixed-POFC method is feasible.
Linear arrays of ultrasonic transducers are commonly used as ultrasonic probes in medical diagnostics for imaging the interior of a human body in vivo. The crosstalk phenomenon occurs during the operation of transducers in which electrical voltages and mechanical vibrations are transmitted to adjacent components. As a result of such additional excitation of the transducers in the array, the directivity characteristics of the aperture used changes, and consequently there is interference with properoperation of a given array and the emergence of distortions in the obtained ultra sound image that reduce its quality. This paper studies the manner of propagation of mechanical crosstalk in the designed model of a linear array of ultrasonic transducers on the basis of unwanted signals, which appeared on elementary piezo-electric transducers when power is supplied to the selected transducer in the array. The universal model of linear array of ultrasonic transducers, which has been developed, allowed the simulation of mechanical crosstalk, taking in to account the cross-coupling phenomenon in all of its structure with the use of finite elements method (FEM) implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics software. The analysis of crosstalk signals showed that they consist of aggregated pulses propagating with different speeds and frequencies. This signifies the formation of different vibration modes transmitted simultaneously via different paths. The paper is an original approach which enables to identify different vibration modes and estimate their participation in the crosstalk signal and their ways of propagation. Conclusions from the research allow predicting specific design changes which are significant due to the minimization of mechanical crosstalk in linear arrays of ultrasonic transducers.
The paper presents a numerical model of the novel design of the axial magnetic bearing with six cylindrical poles. The motivation behind this idea was to eliminate vibrations in rotating machinery due to the axial load. Common conception of such a bearing provides a single component of the electromagnetic force, which is not enough to reduce transverse and lateral vibrations of the armature. The proposed design allows for avoiding wobbling of the disc with the use of a few axial force components that are able to actively compensate the axial load and stabilise the disc in a balanced position. Before a real device is manufactured, a virtual prototype should be prepared. The accurate numerical model will provide essential knowledge about the performance of the axial magnetic bearing.