The Carpathian Orava Basin is a tectonic structure filled with Neogene and Quaternary deposits superimposed on the collision zone between the ALCAPA and European plates. Tectonic features of the south-eastern margin of the Orava Basin and the adjoining part of the fore-arc Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin were studied. Field observations of mesoscopic structures, analyses of digital elevation models and geological maps, supplemented with electrical resistivity tomography surveys were performed. Particular attention was paid to joint network analysis. The NE-SW-trending Krowiarki and Hruštinka-Biela Orava sinistral fault zones were recognized as key tectonic features that influenced the Orava Basin development. They constitute the north-eastern part of a larger Mur-Mürz-Žilina fault system that separates the Western Carpathians from the Eastern Alps. The interaction of these sinistral fault zones with the older tectonic structures of the collision zone caused the initiation and further development of the Orava Basin as a strike-slip-related basin. The Krowiarki Fault Zone subdivides areas with a different deformation pattern within the sediments of the Central Carpathian Palaeogene Basin and was active at least from the time of cessation of its sedimentation in the early Miocene. Comparison of structural data with the recent tectonic stress field, earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS measurements allows us to conclude that the Krowiarki Fault Zone shows a stable general pattern of tectonic activity for more than the last 20 myr and is presently still active.
The hillfort Bojná I–Valy is a part of an early medieval fortification system located in the Považský Inovec mountain range that separates two densely populated settlement areas of Slovakia — namely the valleys of the Nitra and Váh rivers. Judging by the abundance of finds, in the 9th century the 12 hectare hillfort was a prominent seat of social elites. A bronze bell, a collection of gilded figural plaques as well as further symbols substantiate Christian affiliation of the community. The core of the monumental ramparts consists of log chambers with inner grates filled with soil and stones. From the front side, it was protected by a stone shell. Pincer gates had inwardly extended arms and a tower entrance in the front part of the corridor. According to the dendrochronological data, the fortification was erected in the last decade of the 9th century and shortly afterwards destroyed by a fire. Excavations of the bottom part of the ramparts confirmed, however, the presence of remains of an older construction. In this area, there are also four further hillforts providing finds dated back to the Early Middle Ages. At least one of them (Bojná II) was also destroyed by a fire at the end of the 9th century or in the 10th century.
Results of a geomorphologic study as well as radiocarbon and pollen analyses of sediments in small basins of the Jasło-Sanok Depression (Western Carpathians) are summarised. Floors of these basins, carved in soft shale-sandstone Krosno Beds, are covered with channel fluvial deposits and oxbow-lake sediments with lake chalk and peat accumulated in the Late Vistulian and Holocene. Since the early Atlantic Phase (ca 8,400–7,900 BP) the apparent acceleration of overbank (flood) deposition intermitting the peat accumulation is observed. The plant succession includes the Late Glacial (pre-Allerød, Allerød and Younger Dryas) with coniferous park forests, through mixed deciduous forests of the Holocene with elm, hazel, oak and lime as well as spruce-elm forests with alder in wetlands, up to present-day hornbeam forests (Tilio-Carpinetum of various types) and extra-zonal Carpathian beech forests (Dentario-Glandulosae- Fagetum). Abies alba (fir) is frequent in both these association types. First evidences of synanthropic plants that prove presence of prehistoric man appeared in the Subboreal Phase. The oldest radiocarbon date 13,550±100 BP (Gd-7355) [16,710–16,085 b2k], from a bottom part of the Humniska section is probably overestimated. This is indicated by palynological data, which suggest attribution of this section to the older Allerød. Small thickness of gravel blanket from the Plenivistulian termination and the beginning of the Late Vistulian, as well as large areas devoid of weathering and solifluction covers indicate that during the Plenivistulian weathering processes and removal of silt-clay material predominated in the basins. In that time the deflation was among important processes, which is proved by deflation troughs, faceted cobbles and thick covers of the Carpathian type of loess. The Besko Basin has pre-Vistulian tectonic foundation, while landforms of its floor are of erosion-degradation origin and formed during the last Scandinavian glaciation. In the Holocene the basin floors were overbuilt with fluvial deposits up to 8 m thick.
The objective of this article is to present the funerary eye and mouth plates use as a funeral custom from the 10th century in the Carpathian Basin. Presented artefacts, which were interpreted as funerary eye and mouth plates, were sewn onto the shroud used to cover the skull or were placed on the eye cavity and on the mouth of the deceased person. The collected artefacts were divided into four parts, based on the formal aspect. Their characteristics were examined. These artefacts show strong connections with specimens known from eastern Europe, especially with the ones known from the Ural. The ancient Hungarians brought this funeral custom to the Carpathian Basin in the course of their conquest. Ethnic studies are needed to understand the discussed custom, and the subject requires further research.
The subject of this article is the fragmentary silver plate of a gilded silver sheet braid ornament decorated with palmette motifs, which was deposited in the storage of the Gorgippia Archaeological Museum (Krasnodar Krai, Russia) in 2015, together with several other finds. The finds had been discovered at a site named Andreyevskaya Shhel, located a few kilometres south-east of the town, at the north-western hill area of the Caucasus. Among the artefacts deposited in the storage in 2015, there were other finds related to the 9–10th centuries (e.g. silver plate of a sabretache, gilded bronze belt mounts, bronze strap end, sabre, bow case or sabretache mount, fingering, etc). The braid ornament, with many analogies in the Carpathian Basin, could have reached the North Caucasian region by means of long-distance trade. This hypothesis is sustained by the considerable dirham-finds in the Carpathian Basin, which indicate the integration of this region – and of early Hungarian commerce as a whole – into the Eastern, Muslim trade network.