The article concerns computer modelling of processes in cooling systems of internal combustion engines. Modelling objectives and existing commercial programs are presented. It also describes Author’s own method of binding graphs used to describe phenomena in the cooling system of a spark ignition engine. The own model has been verified by tests on the engine dynamometer. An example of using a commercial program for experimental modelling of an installation containing a heat accumulator is presented.
The engine simulations have become an integral part of engine design and development. They are based on approximations and assumptions. The precision of the results depends on the accuracy of these hypotheses. The simplified models of frozen composition, chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics provide the compositions of combustion products for engine cycle simulations. This paper evaluates the effects of different operating conditions and hypotheses on the exergetic analysis of a spark-ignition engine. The Brazilian automotive market has the highest number of flex-fuel vehicles. Therefore, a flex-fuel engine is considered for simulations in order to demonstrate the effects of these different hypotheses. The stroke length and bore diameter have the same value of 80 mm. The in-cylinder irreversibility is calculated for each case at the closed part of the engine cycle. A comparative analysis of these hypotheses provides a comprehensive evaluation of their effects on exergetic analysis. Higher values of accumulated irreversibility are observed for the oversimplified hypothesis.
The paper presents the possible applications of using acoustic diagnostics in inspecting the technical condition of an internal combustion engine with autoignition on the example of the Fiat drive unit with common rail system. As a result of measuring the sound pressure level for specific faults and comparing the noise generated by the motor running smoothly, the detailed maps of changes in the acoustic spectrum are possible to generate. These results may be helpful in the future diagnostics of internal combustion engines. In the paper, the results of scientific work in the area of research, design and operation of internal combustion engines, conducted at the Department of Automotive Engineering, in cooperation with the Laboratory of Hydraulic Drives & Vibroacoustics of Machines at the Wroclaw University of Technology are included.
The paper is a continuation of the publication under the title “Acoustic diagnostics applications in the study of technical condition of combustion engine” and concerns the detailed description of decision support system for identifying technical condition (type of failure) of specified combustion engine. The input data were measured sound pressure levels of specific faults in comparison to the noise generated by undamaged motor. In the article, the whole procedure of decision method based on game graphs is described, as well as the interface of the program for direct usage.
Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI) engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.
Transmission of vibroacoustic energy from an internal combustion engine (ICE) to its surroundings largely depends on how it is mounted, on available transmission paths and on the construction of the vehicle body and/or its surrounding structures. This is especially true in low speed engines in enclosed areas which generate perceptually weak noise, but strong low-frequency waves which energy has a negative impact on human health, comfort and driving safety especially in prolonged exposure to the source. The primary aim of the article was to analyse components of the ICE unit which had a determining impact on the reduction of low-frequency waves. Thus, the structurally transmitted noise from the ICE to its surrounding structure (body of the passenger vehicle) was analysed. The results of the vibroacoustic measurements were compared to modal analysis in order to determine possible resonance sources in the vehicle body and/or for assessing the influence of the vehicles safety gear on the generated vibroacoustic energy transfer into the cabin area of the passenger vehicle. Measurements were made for a passenger vehicle at rest and operating in its most common operational speed as well as for the stationary ICE of a cogenerate unit (CGU). Measurements and FFT analysis were used for the detection of the vibroacoustic energy sound pressure level (noise) and mechanical vibration. Firstly, the low-frequency noise sources were determined and their direct effects on the human body were investigated. Finally, this paper suggests some measures which may contribute to the reduction of undesirable vibroacoustic energy in enclosed areas.
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of a low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine consisting of different versions, such as ceramic coated cylinder head engine-LHR-1-Air gap insulated piston and air gap insulated liner-LHR-2- and Ceramic coated cylinder head, air gap insulated piston and air gap insulated liner -LHR-3 with degrees of insulation with normal temperature condition of linseed oil with varied injection pressure. Performance parameters were determined at various magnitudes of brake mean effective pressure. Pollution levels of smoke and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were recorded at the peak load operation of the engine. Combustion characteristics of the engine were measured with TDC (top dead centre) encoder, pressure transducer, console and special pressure-crank angle software package. Conventional engine (CE) showed deteriorated performance, while LHR engine showed improved performance at recommended injection timing of 27 degrees bTDC and recommend injection pressure of 190 bar with vegetable oil operation, when compared with CE with pure diesel operation. Peak brake thermal efficiency increased by 14%, smoke levels decreased by 10% and NOx levels increased by 30% with LHR engine at an injection pressure of 270 bar when compared with pure diesel operation on CE at manufacturer's recommended injection timing.
Lean mixture burning leads to a decrease in the temperature of the combustion process and it is one of the methods of limiting nitric oxide emissions. It also increases engine efficiency. An effective method to correct lean mixture combustion can be a two-stage system of stratified mixture combustion in an engine with a prechamber. This article presents the results of laboratory research on an SI engine (spark ignition) with a two-stage combustion system with a cylinder powered by gasoline and a prechamber powered by propane-butane gas LPG (liquefied petroleum gas). The results were compared to the results of research on a conventional engine with a one-stage combustion process. The test engine fuel mixture stratification method, with a two-stage combustion system in the engine with a prechamber, allowed to burn a lean mixture with an average excess air factor equal to 2.0 and thus led to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of the engine. The test engine with a conventional, single-stage combustion process allowed to properly burn air-fuel mixtures of excess air factors λ not exceeding 1.5. If the value λ > 1.5, the non-repeatability factor COVLi increases, and the engine efficiency decreases, which makes it virtually impossible for the engine to operate. The engine with a two-stage combustion process, working with λ = 2.0, the Qin/Qtot = 2.5%, reduced the NOx content in the exhaust gases to a level of about 1.14 g/kWh. This value is significantly lower than the value obtained in a conventional engine, which worked at λ = 1.3 with comparable non-repeatability of successive cycles (about 3%) and a similar indicated efficiency (about 34%), was characterised by the emissions of NOx in the exhaust equal to 26.26 g/kWh.