Stosowanie biomasy w energetyce jest działaniem w ramach zastępowania paliw kopalnych pozyskiwaniem energii ze źródeł odnawialnych. Jednak jej stosowanie jako paliwa stałego ze względu na różnorodność stosowanej biomasy powoduje powstawanie odpadów o bardzo zróżnicowanym i niestabilnym składzie chemicznym. Odpady ze spalania biomasy są surowcem o bardzo zróżnicowanym składzie nawet w przypadku spalania biomasy jednego rodzaju. Zawartość poszczególnych pierwiastków w popiołach lotnych ze spalania biomasy waha się od zera do kilkudziesięciu procent. To zróżnicowanie powoduje, że trudno znaleźć dla nich metody odzysku. Najczęściej rozpatrywane kierunki stosowania popiołów ze spalania biomasy to produkcja materiałów budowlanych i rolnictwo. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań pierwiastkowych składów chemicznych z podziałem na najczęściej stosowane paliwa z biomasy. Zaprezentowane zostały wyniki dotyczące pierwiastkowych składów chemicznych popiołów lotnych ze spalania biomasy leśnej i rolniczej w kotłach fluidalnych w energetyce zawodowej. Popioły te charakteryzują się wysoką zawartością: wapnia (12,3–19,4%), krzemu (1,2–8,3%), potasu (0,05–1,46%), chloru (1,1–6,1%), żelaza (0,8–6,5%). Nie stwierdzono w nich obecności sodu. Tylko w jednym z 5 popiołów stwierdzono obecność glinu. We wszystkich badanych popiołach stwierdzono obecność: manganu, chromu, miedzi, niklu, ołowiu, cynku, siarki, bizmutu, cyrkonu, tytanu. Analiza pierwiastkowych składów chemicznych może pozwolić na wstępne określenie kierunku odzysku dla danego popiołu.
Myślą przewodnią rozważania nad kompozycyjnymi i architektonicznymi wyznacznikami tożsamości miejsc w krajobrazie (w konsekwencji – tożsamości krajobrazów) jest w znacznej mierze geneza ich powstania i ocena ich przemian w czasie. Można zatem mówić o idei „dawnej” i „nowej” tożsamości miejsca (krajobrazu będącego jego zewnętrznym wyrazem). Zwłaszcza w przypadku, gdy wykazujemy „dobrą” postawę wobec tego, co określa „kulturę miejsca” wynikającą z jego „umiłowania” i chęci współuczestniczenia w zaczętym wobec niego dziele stworzenia. Humanitarna postawa w omawianym tu duchu troski o zastane dziedzictwo kulturowe i wyrażający je krajobraz każdorazowo może być identyfikowane z tożsamością miejsca lub jej składowymi (tradycją, kulturą , kanonem). Jest bowiem oczywiste, że w duchu kontynuacji dobrej postawy (trwającej miłości do tych obszarów) często w miejscu „dawnej” (dobrej) tożsamości – chcemy i wręcz musimy zaproponować „nową ” (dobrą ) tożsamość – zgodnie z celami i zakresami ochrony poszczególnych obszarów , w tym ich kompozycyjnej czy architektonicznej wartości. Autor podjął próbę przedstawienia tych idei na przykładzie bezprecedensowej w skali kraju, a nawet Europy rewitalizacji krajobrazu warownego Twierdzy Zamość.
Fabrication and microstructure of the AlSi11 matrix composite containing 10 % volume fraction of CrFe30C8 particles were presented in this paper. Composite suspension was manufactured by using mechanical stirring. During stirring process the temperature of liquid metal, time of mixing and rotational speed of mixer were fixed. After stirring process composite suspension was gravity cast into shell mould. The composites were cast, applying simultaneously an electromagnetic field. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of changes in the frequency of the current power inductor on the morphology of the reinforcing phase in the aluminum matrix. The concept is based on the assumption that a chromium-iron matrix of CrFe30C8 particles dissolves and residual carbide phases will substantially strengthen the composite. The microstructure and interface structure of the AlSi11/CrFe30C8 composite has been studied by optical microscopy, scanning microscopy and X-ray diffraction.
The paper presents the method of preparing a composite slurry composed of AlSi11 alloy matrix and 10 vol.% of SiC particles, as well as the method of its high-pressure die casting and the measurement results concerning the castability of the obtained composite. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. There were found the regression equations describing the change of castability of the examined composite as a function of pressure die casting process parameters. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
The aim of research was the elaboration of the synthesis of new organic monomer applicable in gelcasting. The substance named 3,4-di-acryloyl-D-mannitol which contains two acryloyl groups and four hydroxyl groups in its molecule has been synthesized. The monomer has been then applied in the preparation of Al2O3-ZrO2 composites by gelcasting and subsequent sintering. Rheological properties of ceramic suspensions have been examined, as well as the properties of green and sintered bodies. SEM observations allowed to determine the distribution of zirconia grains in alumina matrix. Density, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of ZTA composites have been measured. The new monomer, that is diacryloyl derivative of mannitol, is less sensitive to the oxygen inhibition than commonly used in gelcasting and commercially available 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate.
This paper deals with computer modelling of the retention of a synthetic diamond particle in a metallic matrix produced by powder metallurgy. The analyzed sintered powders can be used as matrices for diamond impregnated tools. First, the behaviour of sintered cobalt powder was analyzed. The model of a diamond particle embedded in a metallic matrix was created using Abaqus software. The preliminary analysis was performed to determine the mechanical parameters that are independent of the shape of the crystal. The calculation results were compared with the experimental data. Next, sintered specimens obtained from two commercially available powder mixtures were studied. The aim of the investigations was to determine the influence of the mechanical and thermal parameters of the matrix materials on their retentive properties. The analysis indicated the mechanical parameters that are responsible for the retention of diamond particles in a matrix. These mechanical variables have been: the elastic energy of particle, the elastic energy of matrix and the radius of plastic zone around particle.
The measurement results concerning the abrasive wear of AlSi11-SiC particles composites are presented in paper. The method of preparing a composite slurry composed of AlSi11 alloy matrix and 10, 20% vol.% of SiC particles, as well as the method of its highpressure die casting was described. Composite slurry was injected into metal mould of cold chamber pressure die cast machine and castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. Very good uniform arrangement of SiC particles in volume composite matrix was observed and these results were publicated early in this journal. The kinetics of abrasive wear and correlation with SiC particles arrangement in composite matrix were presented. Better wear resistance of composite was observed in comparison with aluminium alloy. Very strong linear correlation between abrasive wear and particle arrangement was observed. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
The method of pressure die casting of composites with AlSi11 alloy matrix reinforced with 10 vol. % of SiC particles and the analysis of the distribution of particles within the matrix is presented. The composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, at diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. The distribution of particles over the entire cross-section of the tensile specimen is shown. The index of distribution was determined on the basis of particle count in elementary measuring fields. The regression equation describing the change of the considered index was found as a function of the pressure die casting parameters. The conclusion presents an analysis of the obtained results and their interpretation.
The paper presents the method of preparing a composite slurry composed of AlSi11 alloy matrix and 10 vol.% of SiC particles, as well as the method of its high-pressure die casting and the measurement results concerning the tensile strength, the yield point, the elongation and hardness of the obtained composite. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. There were found the regression equations describing the change of mechanical properties of the examined composite as a function of pressure die casting process parameters. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
This paper discusses the mechanical properties of a material fabricated from commercially available metal powder mixtures designed for use as a metal matrix of diamond impregnated composites. The mixtures with the catalogue numbers CSA and CSA800 provided by a Chinese producer are suitable for experimental laboratory testing. The specimens were fabricated in a graphite mould using hot pressing. The material was tested for density, porosity, hardness, and tensile strength under static loading. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the microstructure and cleavage fracture of broken specimens. It was essential to determine how the chemical composition and the fabrication process affected the microstructure and properties of the material. The properties of the sinters were compared with those of hot pressed specimens fabricated from sub-micron size cobalt powder (Cobalt SMS). Although the as-consolidated material is inferior to cobalt, it displays a favourable combination of hardness, yield strength and ductility, and seems to have a great potential for moderate and general purpose applications.
Multiferroic composites are very promising materials because of their applicability because the magnetoelectric effect occurs in them. The subject of the study were two multiferroic ceramic composites: leaded obtained from powder of the composition PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 and ferrite powder of the composition Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4 and unleaded which was obtained from the powder of the composition BaFe0.5Nb0.5O3 and the same ferrite powder Ni0.64Zn0.36Fe2O4. For the both multiferroic materials the following studies were conducted: SEM, BSE, EDS, XRD and the temperature dependence of dielectric constant ε(T). Using the previously developed method of calculating the magnetoelectric coupling factor (g), based on dielectric measurements, the magnitude of the magnetoelectric effect in the multiferroic composites was determined.
The presented work describes the results of examination of the mechanical properties of castings made either of AlSi9Mg alloy matrix composite reinforced with short carbon fibre or of the pure AlSi9Mg alloy. The tensile strength, the yield strength, Young’s modulus, and the unit elongation were examined both for initial castings and for castings made of the remelted composite or AlSi9Mg alloy. After preparing metallographic specimens, the structure of the remelted materials was assessed. A few non-metallic inclusions were observed in the structure of the remelted composite, not occurring in the initial castings. Mechanical testing revealed that all the examined properties of the initial composite material exceed those of the non-reinforced matrix. A decrease in mechanical properties was stated both for the metal matrix and for the composite after the remelting process, but this decrease was so slight that it either does not preclude them from further use or does not restrict the range of their application.
Light weight, low density with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, aluminum is the most important material and is commonly used for high performance applications such as aerospace, military and especially automotive industries. The researchers who participate in these industries are working hard to further decrease the weight of end products according to legal boundaries of greenhouse gases. A lot of research was undertaken to produce thin sectioned aluminum parts with improved mechanical properties. Several alloying element addition were investigated. Yet, nowadays aluminum has not met these expectations. Thus, composite materials, particularly metal matrix composites, have taken aluminum’s place due to the enhancement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys by reinforcements. This paper deals with the overview of the reinforcements such as SiC, Al2O3 and graphene. Graphene has recently attracted many researcher due to its superior elastic modulus, high fatigue strength and low density. It is foreseen and predicted that graphene will replace and outperform carbon nanotubes (CNT) in near future.
Preliminary tests aimed at obtaining a cellular SiC/iron alloy composite with a spatial structure of mutually intersecting skeletons, using a porous ceramic preform have been conducted. The possibility of obtaining such a composite joint using a SiC material with an oxynitride bonding and grey cast iron with flake graphite has been confirmed. Porous ceramic preforms were made by pouring the gelling ceramic suspension over a foamed polymer base which was next fired. The obtained samples of materials were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic observations as well as investigations into the chemical composition in microareas. It was found that the minimum width of a channel in the preform, which in the case of pressureless infiltration enables molten cast iron penetration, ranges from 0.10 to 0.17 mm. It was also found that the ceramic material applied was characterized by good metal wettability. The ceramics/metal contact area always has a transition zone (when the channel width is big enough), where mixing of the components of both composite elements takes place.
The paper presents the results of research of impact strength of aluminum alloy EN AC-44200 based composite materials reinforced with alumina particles. The research was carried out applying the materials produced by the pressure infiltration method of ceramic preforms made of Al2O3 particles of 3-6m with the liquid EN AC-44200 Al alloy. The research was aimed at determining the composite resistance to dynamic loads, taking into account the volume of reinforcing particles (from 10 to 40% by volume) at an ambient of 23°C and at elevated temperatures to a maximum of 300°C. The results of this study were referred to the unreinforced matrix EN AC-44200 and to its hardness and tensile strength. Based on microscopic studies, an analysis and description of crack mechanics of the tested materials were performed. Structural analysis of a fracture surface, material structures under the crack surfaces of the matrix and cracking of the reinforcing particles were performed.
A eutectic reaction is a basic liquid-solid transformation, which can be used in the fabrication of high-strength in situ composites. In this study an attempt was made to ensure directional solidification of Fe-C-V alloy with hypereutectic microstructure. In this alloy, the crystallisation of regular fibrous eutectic and primary carbides with the shape of non-faceted dendrites takes place. According to the data given in technical literature, this type of eutectic is suitable for the fabrication of in-situ composites, owing to the fact that a flat solidification front is formed accompanied by the presence of two phases, where one of the phases can crystallise in the form of elongated fibres. In the present study an attempt was also made to produce directionally solidifying vanadium eutectic using an apparatus with a very high temperature gradient amounting to 380 W/cm at a rate of 3 mm/h. Alloy microstructure was examined in both the initial state and after directional solidification. It was demonstrated that the resulting microstructure is of a non-homogeneous character, and the process of directional solidification leads to an oriented arrangement of both the eutectic fibres and primary carbides.
The paper presents a detailed description of the process of creation of a surface alloy layer (using high-carbon ferrochromium) on the cast steel casting. The mechanism of the surface alloy layer is based on the known theories [5,6]. The proposed course of formation of the layers has been extended to decarburization stage of steel. The research included proving the presence of carbon-lean zone. The experiment included the analysis of the distribution of elements and microhardness measurement.
In this study, metal matrix composite materials containing melt-spun Al-20Si-5Fe alloys and boron carbide was produced by high energy ball milling and then hot pressing at 200 MPa pressure and 450°C. Mechanical and microstructural characterizations were performed by using an optical microscopy, X-Ray diffractometer, and dynamic microhardness tester. It was observed that boron carbide particles were homogenously distributed in the microstructure and values of microhardness and elastic modules were averagely 830 MPa and 42 GPa, respectively.
Cast magnesium matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles were investigated by using Raman microscopy. 3C, 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC particles were identified in the investigated composites. Additionally, Mg2Si compound was detected by Raman microscopy in the composites microstructure.
Wear resistance of TiC-cast steel metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composites were obtained with SHSB method known as SHS synthesis during casting. It has been shown the differences in wear between composite and base cast steel. The Miller slurry machine test were used to determine wear loss of the specimens. The slurry was composed of SiC and water. The worn surface of specimens after test, were studied by SEM. Experimental observation has shown that surface of composite zone is not homogenous and consist the matrix lakes. Microscopic observations revealed the long grooves with SiC particles indented in the base alloy area, and spalling pits in the composite area. Due to the presence of TiC carbides on composite layer, specimens with TiC reinforced cast steel exhibited higher abrasion resistance. The wear of TiC reinforced cast steel mechanism was initially by wearing of soft matrix and in second stage by polishing and spalling of TiC. Summary weight loss after 16hr test was 0,14÷0,23 g for composite specimens and 0,90 g for base steel
Considering the environmental pollution caused by waste rubber, some measures should be taken to improve the utilization rate of waste rubber. In this study, the effect of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) particles in the polyurethane (PU) foams on sound absorption behavior is investigated for improving sound environment within vehicles and reducing the environment pollution. EPDM of different contents and hardness are used as fillers for producing foams with different pore morphologies and sound absorption properties. The results show adds EPDM to foam would produce smaller pores, higher density and bigger air-flow resistivity. Simultaneously, there are better sound absorption properties of the PU foam composites in the medium frequency region and the better value can be obtained at the lower frequency with the content of EPDM increasing. The hardness of EPDM also shows better influence on sound absorption properties, especially in the medium frequency region. It means the foam pore morphologies have influence on sound absorption properties.
The work presents the investigation results concerning the structure of composite pressure die castings with AlSi11 alloy matrix reinforced with SiC particles. Examination has been held for composites containing 10 and 20 volume percent of SiC particles. The arrangement of the reinforcing particles within the matrix has been qualitatively assessed in specimens cut out of the castings. The index of distribution was determined on the basis of particle count in elementary measuring fields. The tensile strength, the yield point and elongation of the obtained composite were measured. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. The regression equation describing the change of the considered arrangement particles index and mechanical properties were found as a function of the pressure die casting parameters. The infuence of particle arrangement in composite matrix on mechanical properties these material was examined and the functions of correlations between values were obtained. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
The presented work deals with the influence of the addition of soft graphite particles on the abrasive wear of composite reinforced with hard SiC particles. The discussed hybrid composites were produced by stirring the liquid alloy and simultaneous adding the mixture of particles. The adequately prepared suspension was gravity cast into a metal die. Both the composite castings obtained in this way and the comparative castings produced of the pure matrix alloy were examined for the abrasive wear behaviour. Photomacrographs of the sliding surfaces of the examined composites were taken, and also the hardness measurements were carried out. It was found that even a small addition of Cgr particles influences positively the tribological properties of the examined composite materials, protecting the abraded surface from the destructive action of silicon carbide particles. The work presents also the results of hardness measurements which confirm that the composite material hardness increases with an increase in the volume fraction of hard reinforcing particles.