The paper presents results of research concerning operating of five small wastewater treatment plants working in two different technologies: hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plant and constructed wetland. Each object was designed for the treatment of domestic sewage after preliminary mechanical treatment in a septic tank. Hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plants and one of constructed wetland beds were built for treating sewage produced in educational institutions and resort. In the article attention is paid to possibility of exceeding the maximum allowable concentration of pollutants for three main indicators of pollution: BOD5, COD, and total suspension. The reduction of these indices is required by the Regulation of the Minister of Environment  for wastewater treatment plants with PE < 2000. In addition, the paper presents the effects of wastewater treatment to reduce biogens. The best quality of outflow was reached by outflows from constructed wetland treatment plants. None of the observed objects fulfilled the requirements in terms of allowable concentrations for total suspension. The most effective were objects operating in technology of “constructed wetland”.
This study investigated the operation of three full-scale Lemna System surface fl ow municipal wastewater treatment plants, built according to the Lemna Corporation design. These plants consist of two ponds, the first aerated and the second for duckweed, with a barrier grid in the latter to ensure uniform plant distribution across its area. According to designers duckweed improves the efficiency of wastewater treatment. The three treatment plants are situated in central Poland and they differ in the occurrence of duckweed, two of them, located in Raków and Bąkowiec, operate without duckweed. and the third in Falęcin Stary, Lemna minor covers ca. 90% of second pond surface. The efficiency of Lemna System wastewater treatment was found not to differ between the plants with and without duckweed. The aerated pond played the main role in reduction of pollutants in the investigated Lemna Systems
In the paper, the research results on the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C7 to C30) on constructed wetlands have been presented. The research has been realized on the semi-technical scale constructed wetlands. planted with reed Phragmites australis. The experimental installation is located on the filling station in Balice and treats the fraction of stormwater from this utility. The concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons in analyzed stormwater were between 96.02 µg/dm3 and 6177.33 µg/dm3 , and from 47.55 µg/dm3 to 5011.14 µg/dm3 in effluent from the installation. The average total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal effectiveness was 48%, the values ranged from 19% to 81%. Hydrocarbons C14 to C18 were removed with the lowest effectiveness (26%–32%), the lighter hydrocarbons – with higher one (39%–68%), however the highest removal effectiveness were observed for the hydrocarbons with the highest carbon atoms numbers (from 51% for C20 to 92%–93% for C26–C30).