Heavy steel castings deoxidized with aluminium are sometimes brittle intercrystalline failed during their service along primary grain boundaries what is initiated by aluminium nitrides and so called conchoidal fractures are formed. The tendency to forming the conchoidal fractures depends in particular on cooling rate (the casting modulus), aluminium and nitrogen contents in steel. During deoxidation, when manufacturing heavy castings, the elements with high affinity to nitrogen, zirconium or titanium, are added to steel that would decrease nitrogen activity by the bond on stable nitrides. The formation of stable nitrides should reduce the tendency of steel to the formation of conchoidal fractures. Deoxidation was thermodynamically analyzed at presence of the mentioned elements. For particular conditions a probable course of deoxidation was estimated at test castings. The deoxidation course was checked by microanalysis of deoxidation products (inclusions). For service and experimental castings the anticipated composition of inclusions was compared. It has been proved that in heavy castings with high aluminium contents in steel under studied conditions neither the addition of zirconium nor of titanium nor of rare earth metals will prevent the formation of conchoidal fractures.
The work presents experiment results from the area of copper casting technology and chosen examples of alloyed copper. At present, copper casting technology is applied in many branches of industrial manufacturing, especially in the sector of construction, communications, arms and power engineering. Alloyed copper, containing slight additions of different elements and having special physio-chemical properties, is used in a special range of applications. Copper technology and alloyed copper analyses have been presented, these materials being used for cast manufacturing for power engineering. The quality of casts has been assessed, based on their microstructure analysis, chemical content and the cast properties. During the research, special deoxidizing and modifying agents were applied for copper and chosen examples of alloyed copper; also exemplary samples were tested with the help of metallographic analysis, electrical conductivity and gaseous impurities research.
Deoxidation of steel with carbon under reduced pressure is often used for increasing the steel purity. Suitable units for this purpose in foundries are vacuum induction furnaces. Possibilities of increasing the steel purity by deoxidation with carbon in the vacuum induction furnace were studied for the steel for the petrochemistry of specific composition 25Cr/35Ni. The charge composed of the return material only was melted in the air. During melting the charge oxidized and the oxidizing slag formed. Chemical composition of steel, morphology, chemical composition of inclusions in the steel and chemical composition of slag after vacuuming were studied on the basis of samples taken before and after vacuuming. Temperature and oxygen activity were measured before and after vacuuming. Globular inclusions with dominant content of silicon and manganese were observed in steel before and after vacuuming. Contents of total oxygen in steel didn’t change significantly during vacuuming. On the basis of composition of inclusions and measured oxygen activity the activity of Cr2O3 in inclusions was calculated. A slag sample was taken after vacuuming and equilibrium oxygen activity in steel with regard to the Cr2O3 content in the slag was estimated from the slag composition. Equilibrium oxygen activity in relation to the Cr2O3 content in the slag was higher than equilibrium activity measured in the steel. For this reason it is not possible, under the studied conditions, to decrease oxygen content in steel during vacuuming.