The problem of regional diversity is the subject of a broad scientific discourse. The dynamics of territory development is connected with many factors. Among them, the so-called spaces for development opportunities of individual units and resiliance issues for external factors of regions. The author discusses the diversity of individuals from the point of view of these two factors. It indicates future directions of regional research, which will show why regions at the start with potentially the same structure are developing completely differently and why in most cases resistance is associated with innovation and in the case of Polish regions it is not.
Presented paper adresses issue of key research areas, which are important for development of backward regions in Poland. Proposed areas of priority research activities concentrates on: building resilience of regional structures on socio-economic crises; using megatrends impact on development paths; implementing public intervention generating economic growth; developing territorial keys for development; utilising capacity of cities, especially biggest; increasing quality of public management, strengthening of innovativeness and competitiveness of EU regions and cities; using better social and cultural dimension of socio-economic development; increasing potential of cross-border cooperation and using new development concepts, monitoring of socio-economic development through objective measuring of levels and paths. For Poland It is very important to use research activities to support process of closing gap with more affl uent EU regions.