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Number of results: 5
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Abstract

Trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) are chemical compounds which pose a serious threat for human health. Their specific properties make it possible that these substances may linger in soil and water for many years. These are the reasons why wells with water designed for drinking purposes have been subject of monitoring since 2006. This paper presents the results of monitoring research conducted in the soil-water environment within the framework in third phase of an ecological audit of land. The ecological audit of land made it possible to identify the cause and degree of the degradation, and helped formulate rationale for remedy decisions pertaining to the land (remediation/reclamation). The objective of the paper was to determine the pollution status of the soil-water environment and, subsequently, monitor (in years 2008-2010) the contents of the hazardous substances, namely trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, within the area of the potential impact of metallurgical plant located in borders of the Main Underground Water Reservoir Wierzbica-Ostrowiec (GZWP 420) in in voivodeship Świętokrzyskie.
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Abstract

The concentrations of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn in the soil and litterfall, as well as influx of the elements to the soils with litterfall were studied in a mixed beech-pine-spruce stand in northern Poland during the years 2007–2009. Annual influx of litterfall to the soil amounted from 3.234 to 4.871 t/ha. Beech, pine and spruce litterfall contributed in total litterfall in 50.8−70.1%, 11.4−11.9% and 1.6−24.0% respectively. The following average annual concentrations of heavy metals in total litterfall during the 3-year study period were noticed: 2469.3–3469.2 mg Mn/kg, 153.6–160.8 mg/kg Zn, 8.0–14.3 mg Ni/kg and 5.0–6.8 mg Cu/kg. In general, the concentrations of Mn and Cu were higher in beech litterfall in comparison to pine and spruce. The contents of Zn and Ni in beech, pine and spruce litterfall were comparable. Annual influx of metals to the soil with litterfall was: 10341.6–14422.4 g/ha Mn, 460.3–748.1 g/ha Zn, 37.4–66.6 g/ha Ni and 20.2–31.8 g/ha Cu. The fluxes were higher for Mn, Zn and Ni, and comparable for Cu in relation to those observed in other beech, pine, spruce and mixed stands in northern Europe.
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Abstract

This article aims to discuss the notion of environmental damage under the CLC 1992 and FUND 1992 as stated in the new Guidelines for Presenting Claims for Environmental Damage prepared by the International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds. That approach is contrasted with the solution adopted in the United States of America under the OPA. Particular attention is given to the problems of compensation for lost services of the environment, as well as providing alternative environment as a restoration measure. The judgments of French and Spanish courts in the Erika and Prestige cases are discussed, raising questions as to suitability of the CLC 1992/FUND 1992 system.
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Abstract

Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers numerous situations in which the theory of environmental protection confronts the stark reality. The discrepancy between theory and practice can particularly be noticed in foundry engineering in developing countries where the contrasts between different countries and casting plants are extremely striking. The comparison of working conditions in European and Asian foundries provides a vast scope for further observations and analyses. Environmental protection seems not only a concern of manufacturers of castings, but also of their customers whose opinion exerts a significant influence on both the acceptability of working conditions and on the approach to environmental pollution adopted in metal casting industry. The article presents a number of examples of various outlooks on environmental issues in foundries manufacturing a wide range of cast steel and cast iron castings, where different technologies and production processes are applied.
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Abstract

The research focuses on assessing the metal content, mainly copper, lead, iron and also silver in metallurgical slag samples from the area where historical metallurgical industry functioned. In the smelter located in Mogiła, near Krakow (southern Poland), whose operation is confirmed in sources from 1469, copper was probably refined as well as silver was separated from copper. Based on the change of chemical and soil phase content and also taking cartographic and historical data into account, considering the restrictions resulting from the modern land use the area was determined whose geochemical mapping can point to the location of the 15th century Jan Thurzo’s smelter in Mogiła near Krakow. Moreover, using the same approach with the samples of this kind here as with hazardous waste, an attempt has been made to assess their impact on the environment. Thereby, taking the geoenvironmental conditions into account, potential impact of the industrial activity has been assessed, which probably left large scale changes in the substratum, manifested in the structure, chemical content and soil phase changes. Discovering areas which are contaminated above the standard value can help to identify historical human activities, and finding the context in artefacts allows to treat geochemical anomalies as a geochronological marker. For this purpose the best are bed sediments, at present buried in the ground, of historical ditches draining the area of the supposed smelter. Correlating their qualities with analogical research of archeologically identified slags and other waste material allows for reconstructing the anthropopressure stages and the evaluation of their effects. The operation of Jan Thurzo’s smelter is significant for the history of mining and metallurgy of Poland and Central and Eastern Europe.
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