The present studies explore how activating concepts pertaining to the origins of interindividual differences affect the processing of stereotypical and counterstereotypical information. The concepts, i.e., nature and nurture, are both assumed to evoke similar stereotypical expectations although nurture implies greater flexibility. The studies show that stereotypical information enhances whereas counterstereotypical information diminishes stereotyping when nurture is activated. In contrast, counterstereotypical evidence challenges what activated nature would suggest and perceivers primed with nature evince stronger stereotyping when they encounter counterstereotypical information. The results also show that priming nature leads perceivers to attribute stereotype conformity to internal causes whereas nurture accredits conformity to situational constraints. Stereotype flexibility is associated with the subjective ease with which perceivers can both imagine counterstereotypical and mentally undo stereotypical evidence.
The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between conventional antifungal drug and essential oils against isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis. Antifungal activity of Cinnamomum cassia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum vulgare and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils were tested against 19 strains of M. pachydermatis isolated from healthy dogs and reference strain M. pachydermatis CBS 1879. The checkerboard assay was used to search for in- teractions. Synergism was observed for the combination of clotrimazole with Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare. The combinations of Cinnamomum cassia and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils with clotrimazole showed indifferent effect. Additive antimicrobial activity was observed for the combination of clotrimazole with Syzygium aromaticum and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oils against reference strain. The obtained results showed synergistic interactions between essential oils and clotrimazole which could improve effectiveness of this antifungal drug.