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Abstract

Seed-borne diseases of wheat such as Fusarium head blight (FHB), a fungal disease caused by several species of Fusarium, results in reduced yield and seed quality. The aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species, the effect of Fusarium-infected seeds on germination and vigor indices and to determine the location of Fusarium spp. in seeds, as well as to investigate the pathogenicity and variability of aggressiveness of the isolates obtained from pre-basic seeds wheat fields in Iran. According to morphological and molecular characters, the species F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae were identified. Among the isolates, F. graminearum was the predominant species with the highest frequency and relative density of 92.9% and 70.9%, respectively. We observed that germination and vigor indices were decreased due to increased Fusarium-infected seeds. Results indicated significant differences among cultivars and seed-borne Fusarium levels. While a higher infection level of Fusarium spp. most commonly occurred in the seed coat, only F. graminearum was observed in embryos. Our study about pathogenicity showed that 77.3% of the Fusarium spp. isolates were not pathogenic and 22.7% isolates of Fusarium spp. were pathogenic or weakly pathogenic. Our results indicated that variability in aggressiveness among isolates of a species and positive correlation may be determined by pathogenicity tests. This is the first time the location of Fusarium spp. in seeds has been identified. It is also the first time that Fusarium-infected seeds in pre-basic seeds wheat fields of Iran have been evaluated.
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Abstract

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important diseases that occurs in cereal regions worldwide and causes serious economic damage. This disease can be caused by several Fusarium species with Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto being the most common pathogen isolated from several crops. The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of F. graminearum sensu stricto on rye grains collected from field samples in Argentina and to determine the potential ability to produce deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEA). Based on morphological characteristics, the isolate was identified as F. graminearum sensu stricto. To confirm molecularly, portions of the RED and TRI genes were sequenced and showed 99% similarity with the F. graminearum sensu stricto sequences available in the NCBI database. The potential to produce DON, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and ZEA was determined. Moreover, Koch´s postulates were carried out. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. graminearum sensu stricto associated with rye kernels in Argentina.
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Abstract

Although Syrian high-yielding wheat cultivars grown under Mediterranean conditions include acceptable levels of resistance to biotic constraints, little is known about their susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), a harmful disease of wheat cultivation worldwide. The capacity of 16 fungal isolates of four FHB species to confer the disease on spikes and spikelets of six widely grown old and modern Syrian durum and bread wheat cultivars with known in vitro quantitative resistance to FHB was evaluated. Quantitative traits were visually assessed using spray and point inoculations for determining disease development rates, disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) under controlled conditions. Differences in pathogenicity and susceptibility among wheat cultivars were observed, emphasizing the need for breeders to include aggressive isolates or a mixture of isolates representative of the FHB diversity in their screenings for selection of disease resistant cultivars. Bread wheat cultivars showed lower levels of spike and spikelet damage than durum cultivars regardless of the date of cultivar release. Overall, the six wheat cultivars expressed acceptable resistance levels to initial fungal infection and fungal spread. Quantitative traits showed significant correlation with previous standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) data generated in vitro. Thus, the predictive ability of AUDPCstandard appears to be crucial in assessing pathogenicity and resistance in adult wheat plants under controlled conditions. While in the Mediterranean countries the risk of disease is progressively increasing, the preliminary data in this report adds to our knowledge about four FHB species pathogenicity on a Syrian scale, where the environment is quite similar to some Mediterranean wheat growing areas, and show that Syrian cultivars could be new resistant donors with favorable agronomical characteristics in FHB-wheat breeding programs.
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