The advance of MEMS-based inertial sensors successfully expands their applications to small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), thus resulting in the challenge of reliable and accurate in-flight alignment for airborne MEMS-based inertial navigation system (INS). In order to strengthen the rapid response capability for UAVs, this paper proposes a robust in-flight alignment scheme for airborne MEMS-INS aided by global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Aggravated by noisy MEMS sensors and complicated flight dynamics, a rotation-vector-based attitude determination method is devised to tackle the in-flight coarse alignment problem, and the technique of innovation-based robust Kalman filtering is used to handle the adverse impacts of measurement outliers in GNSS solutions. The results of flight test have indicated that the proposed alignment approach can accomplish accurate and reliable in-flight alignment in cases of measurement outliers, which has a significant performance improvement compared with its traditional counterparts.
The paper expounds relevant results of some of the present author’s experi- ments defining the strapdown IMU sensors’ errors and their propagation into and within DGPS/IMU. In order to deal with this problem, the author conducted both the laboratory and field-based experiments. In the landborne laboratory the stand-alone Low-Cost IMU MotionPak MKII was verified in terms of the accelerometer bias, scale factor, gyroscope rotation parameters and internal temperature cross-correlations. The waterborne field-trials based on board dedicated research ships at the lake and at the busy small sea harbour were augmented by the landborne ones. These experiments conducted during the small, average, and high dynamics of movement provided comparative sole- GPS, stand-alone DGPS and integrated DGPS/IMU solution error analysis in terms of the accuracy and the smoothness of the solution. This error estimation was also carried on in the context of the purposely-erroneous incipient DGPS/IMU initialisation and alignment and further in the circumstances of on-flight alignment improvement in the absence of the signal outages. Moreover, the lake-waterborne tests conducted during extremely low dynamics of movement informed about the deterioration of the correctly initialised DGPS/IMU solution with reference to the stand-alone DGPS solution and sole- GPS solution. The above-mentioned field experiments have checked positively the DGPS /MKI research integrating software prepared during the Polish/German European Union Research Project and modified during the subsequent Project supported by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research.
After the banking crisis, the European Union (EU) introduced a framework for the restructuring and orderly liquidation of credit institutions. The overarching goal of the new rules is to manage severe banking crisis more efficiently. One of the main pillars of the European bank resolution regime are the powers of the resolution authorities to use resolution tools (sale of business, bridge bank, bad bank and bail-in). However, the question arises whether the implemented toolkit will be sufficient to effectively contain systemic banking crisis. The literature regarding empirical research on the effectiveness of the BRRD tools provides ambiguous conclusions. Therefore, the newly established resolution authorities in the EU were asked to express their opinion about their readiness to combat systemic crisis and the usefulness of the accessible toolkit. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the resolution tools in a systemic crises by the resolution authorities showed that the most effective resolution tool seems to be the bad bank, while bank liquidation was rated as the least appropriate. Nevertheless, the resolution authorities also identified many barriers for all resolution tools that may limit the ability of their implementation and possibly translate into the lower effectiveness of the resolution framework.