The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of cystic ovarian follicles (COFs) occurring after puerperium on fertility and the effect of their treatment with progesterone releasing device on reproductive performance in dairy cows. The study was carried out in 3 herds of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows under herd health program. COFs were diagnosed by ultrasound above 60 days p.p. They were defined as follicular structures with a diameter > 2.5 cm in the absence of a corpus luteum at two repeated examinations at the 14-days interval. On the day of COF diagnosis blood samples were collected to measure progesterone (P4) concentration. On the basis of the wall thickness measurement and progesterone concentration at the first examination, the COFs were differentiated into follicular and luteal cysts. The experimental group consisted of 23 animals with COF. The cows were treated with PRID Delta (Ceva Animal Health, Poland), containing 1.55 g of progesterone, for 7 days. The cows without oestrus signs within 14 days after treatment were re-examinated. If COF persisted, the cows were treated again with PRID Delta. The treatment was repeated maximum three times. Fifteen cows with ovarian cysts were left untreated and served as a control group. The cows with COF were matched to healthy cows without COF. The cows with COF had worse fertility performances compared to cows without COF. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in conception rates, number of services per conception and days open between these groups. Compared with non-treated cows with COF, in cows with COF treated with PRID Delta conceptions rates and number of services per conception were similar, but the days open were significantly (p<0.05) lower in cows treated than in non-treated (183.3 days vs. 277.6 days). There were no differences in reproductive performances between the follicular and luteal cysts in treated and non-treated cows. In conclusion, the results of our study confirm the negative impact of COF after puerperium on fertility in dairy cows. Furthermore the results indicate the usefulness of PRID Delta for the treatment of COF occurring after the puerperium regardless of cysts type.
NC11 steel, in view of the specificity of its manufacturing process, is characterised with band-like orientation of carbides. Depending on the direction of cutting the material for the inserts out of commercially available steel products, carbide bands can be oriented in parallel or perpendicularly to the direction in which aggregate grains move in the process of pressing stampings. It has been found that in case of scratches made in direction perpendicular to carbide bands, depth of the scratches is less than this observed when scratches are made in direction coinciding with prevailing orientation of carbide precipitates.
A short literature survey which justifies coating of ceramic cutting inserts is presented. The results reported are on selected nitride coatings, in particular nanoscale multilayer, with layers of type Ti-Zr-N, TiN, ZrN and (TiAl)N, deposited by the arc PVD method on oxidecarbide ceramic cutting inserts of type TACN and TW2 produced at the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Measurements and quality assessments were made, including of thickness of the coatings and of their constituent micro and nanolayers, microhardness of the coating and of the substrate, surface roughness of the inserts and of the cylindrical workpieces turned with these tools. Lifetimes of the coated and uncoated inserts were compared in turning an alloy tool steel. A significant increase in lifetime of the coated TW2 cutting tools was shown.
The paper presents a method of producing a grey cast iron casting locally reinforced with a titanium insert printed using SLM method (Selective Laser Melting). This article attempts to examine the impact of the selected geometry of titanium spatial insert on the surface layer formation on grey cast iron. The scope of the research focuses on metallographic examination - observation and analysis of the structure of the reinforced surface layer on a light and scanning microscope and a hardness measurement of the titanium layer area. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that the reaction between titanium insert and metal (grey cast iron) locally develops numerous carbides precipitation (mainly TiC particles), which increases the hardness of the reinforced surface layer and local strengthening of the material. The ratio between the thickness of the support part (grey cast iron) and the working part (titanium insert) affects the resulting layers connection structure. The properties of the obtained reinforced surface layer depend mainly on the geometry of the insert (primarily on the internal dimensions of the connector) and the volume of the casting affecting the re-melting of the insert. A more concentrated structure of carbides precipitation occurs in castings with a full connector insert.
The paper presents an innovative method of creating the layered castings. The innovation relies on application the 3D printing insert obtaining in SLM (selective laser melting) method. This type of scaffold insert made from pure Ti powder, was placed into mould cavity directly before pouring by grey cast iron. In result of used method was obtained grey cast iron casting with surface layer reinforced by titanium carbides. In range of studies were carried out metallographic researches using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, microhardness measurements and abrasive wear resistance. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that there is a possibility of reinforcing surface layer of the grey cast iron casting by using 3D printing scaffold insert in the method of mould cavity preparation. Moreover there was a local increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance in spite of the precipitation of titanium carbides in surface layer of grey cast iron. While the usable properties of composite surface layer obtained in result of use of the method presented in the paper, strongly depend of dimensions of scaffold insert, mainly parameters Re and Ri.