The whirlpool separator, used for hot trub separation, is prevalent in the brewing industry. It is a kind of a hydrocyclone inside of which a tea leaf effect occurs, which is sediment accumulation into a cone shape at the central part of the tank’s bottom. This manner of sediment accumulation is caused by the secondary flow occurring in the so-called Ekman boundary layer. This article is a summary of the research, which has been conducted for many years and involved observation, simulation and experimental research on the recognition and formation of the secondary flow accumulating the sediment cone. Secondary flows occurring in a whirlpool were identified through CFD simulation and PIV experiments, and are presented in this paper. Based on their location and direction, an attempt to determine their impact on the separation process taking place in the whirlpool has been made. The secondary flow identification methods proposed in this paper can be successfully applied in other solutions, e. g. structural ones, which involve rotational-flow-based separation.
The aim of the project was to collect experimental data regarding local distributions of fluid velocity and inert tracer concentration in a tank reactor with turbulent flow. The experiments were performed in a microscale in a region of tracer fluid injection. The results of experiments can be used for direct validation of currently developed CFD models, particularly for time-dependent mixing models used in LES.
Results of velocity measurements of liquid and gas bubbles in a tank with a self-aspirating disk impeller are analysed. Studies were carried out using a fluorescent dye tracer in the measuring system with two cameras (simultaneous phase velocity measurement) and with one camera (sequential measurement of phase velocity). Based on a comparative analysis of the acquired data it was found that when differences in the phase velocities were small the simultaneous velocity measurement gave good results. However, sequential measurement gives greater possibilities for setting the measuring system and if the analysis of instantaneous velocities is not necessary, it seems to be a better solution.
Simulations of turbulent mixing in two types of jet mixers were carried out using two CFD models, large eddy simulation and κ-ε model. Modelling approaches were compared with experimental data obtained by the application of particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence methods. Measured local microstructures of fluid velocity and inert tracer concentration can be used for direct validation of numerical simulations. Presented results show that for higher tested values of jet Reynolds number both models are in good agreement with the experiments. Differences between models were observed for lower Reynolds numbers when the effects of large scale inhomogeneity are important.
The paper presents experimental results of the visualization of the nonlinear aeroacoustic sound generation phenomena occurring in organ flue pipe. The phase-locked particle image velocimetry technique is applied to visualize the mixed velocity field in the transparent organ flue pipe model made from Plexiglas. Presented measurements were done using synchronization to the tone generated by the pipe itself sup- plied by controlled air flow with seeding particles. The time series of raw velocity field distribution images show nonlinear sound generation mechanisms: the large amplitude of deflection of the mean flue jet and vortex shedding in the region of pipe mouth. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) was then applied to the experimental data to separately visualize the mean mass flow, pulsating jet mass flow with vortices and also sound waves near the generation region as well as inside and outside of the pipe. The resulting POD spatial and temporal modes were used to approximate the acoustic velocity field behaviour at the pipe fundamental frequency. The temporal modes shapes are in a good agreement with the microphone pressure signal shape registered from a distance. Obtained decomposed spatial modes give interesting insight into sound generating region of the organ pipe and the transition area towards the pure acoustic field inside the resonance pipe. They can give qualitative and quantitative data to verify existing sound generation models used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA).
Feasibility of a model of gas bubble break-up and coalescence in an air-lift column enabling determination of bubble size distributions in a mixer with a self-aspirating impeller has been attempted in this paper. According to velocity measurements made by the PIV method with a self-aspirating impeller and Smagorinski’s model, the spatial distribution of turbulent energy dissipation rate close to the impeller was determined. This allowed to positively verify the dependence of gas bubble velocity used in the model, in relation to turbulent energy dissipation rate. Furthermore, the range of the eddy sizes capable of breaking up the gas bubbles was determined. The verified model was found to be greatly useful, but because of the simplifying assumptions some discrepancies of experimental and model results were observed.
The velocity field around the standard Rushton turbine was investigated by the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The mean ensembleaveraged velocity profiles and root mean square values of fluctuations were evaluated at two different regions. The first one was in the discharge stream in the radial direction from the impeller where the radial flow is dominant and it is commonly modelled as a swirling turbulent jet. The validity range of the turbulent jet model was studied. The second evaluated region is under the impeller where flow seems to be at first sight rather rigorous but obtained results show nonnegligible values of fluctuation velocity.