The aim of this article is a critical analysis of Peter F. Strawson’s theory of primitiveness of the concept of person contained in the third chapter of the Individuals. The problems associated with the distinction between M-predicates and P-predicates are pointed out. The article shows different ways of understanding primitiveness of the concept of person, and points to gaps in Strawson’s argumentation and to the dubious potential of the theory if it is used to solve some basic problems in philosophy of mind. It also deals with some of the difficulties outlined, but does not propose to solve them all.
Developing the empathic attitude is one of the tasks of medical education as it aff ects the quality of therapeutic contact in the relationship between the doctor and the patient, conditioning the treatment process. According to Davis’s concept, empathy is defi ned as an aff ective-cognitive reaction in the context of the other person’s experience. Aim: Analysis of profi les of empathic sensitivity in students of medicine. Group: Male and female students of the fi ft h year of medicine who agreed to participate in an anonymous study (n = 153; M = 57, F = 96; mean age: 23 years). Tools: Th e Empathetic Sensitivity Scale (EES), which is the Polish tool for Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used. Th e ESS includes three sub-scales: Empathic Care (EC), Personal Distress (PD) and Adopting Perspective (AP). Results: The raw results were converted into sten scores and for sten scores for all three dimensions of empathetic sensitivity no diff erences were found between male and female students. Th ree clusters (1: n = 33%, 2: n = 39%, 3: n = 28%), which diff er in terms of each distinguished indicator, were identifi ed. Conclusions: Th e first cluster characterizes empathetic people, both in the aff ective and cognitive spheres, and those dealing well with unpleasant emotions in situations diffi cult to others. Th e second cluster characterizes participants with the ability to recognize the needs of others and to take into account their perspectives; the third cluster includes participants with a tendency to focus on their own experiences emerging in response to other people’s suff ering but with the ability to understand a situation and show empathic concern for the other person. The most favourable profi le — for a future doctor as well as for his patients — is the fi rst cluster because the doctor, with his empathic sensitivity directed towards the other man, can deal with his own unpleasant emotions.
Psychodrama is a method of therapy and personal development which strongly engages – apart from the intellect – the body and emotions. It frequently makes use of symbols and metaphors based on a natural inclination to play, at the same time triggering spontaneity and creativity. Psychodrama was invented by Jacob Moreno in the early 20th century. For a long time, it has been subjected to various changes. Its development has brought about the adjustment of its tools to different needs and group situations. Today, psychodrama is widely applied in psychotherapy, personal development, business, as well as education. The presented study is aimed at showing the usefulness of psychodrama as a tool which enhances the understanding of disability by both people without disability (as it is understood by the non-disabled) and the disabled (as regards the understanding of their own limitations). An additional goal is presenting the general assumptions of psychodrama the benefits from using its techniques for the development of e.g. teachers, therapists, tutors and other people working with the intellectually disabled, post-graduate students of special pedagogy in the field of oligophrenopedagogy.
While personality is strongly related to experienced emotions, few studies examined the role of personality traits on affective forecasting. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between extraversion and neuroticism personality traits and affective predictions about academic performance. Participants were asked to predict their emotional reactions two months before they will get their results for one important exam. At the same time, personality was assessed with the Big Five Inventory. All the participants were contacted by a text message eight hours after that the results were available, and they were requested to rate their experienced affective state. Results show moderate negative correlations between neuroticism and both predicted and experienced feelings, and that extraversion exhibits a weak positive correlation with predicted feelings, but not with experienced feelings. Taken together, these findings confirm that extraversion and neuroticism shape emotional forecasts, and suggest that affective forecasting interventions based on personality could probably enhance their efficiencies.
Professor architect Juliusz Żórawski was for the author of this paper, a leading personality, during his period of studiea and assistantship. Author on the wider background of events of his life, draws a portrait of his mentor according to: creative Modern projecting, thinking, talking and writing about architecture – especially on the field of form. The teacher and his pupil had similar passions, e.g. expressing oneself by free hand sketching, sensibility towards a landscape, e.g. Tatra Mountains. This is why in spite that Żórawski was rather radical Modernist, the fan of abstraction, the author of this paper owes him his own views closer to the contextualism, and a creative, more “hot”expression, and at the first – his passion towards architecture and its creation.
The author, as a former pupil of the title figure of this paper, and as a leading his cooperator in numerous creative works, recalls memoires and presents an analysis of the personality of late professor of architectute, J. Tadeusz Gawłowski. The paper represents both – objective and official features of chronicle, hence also introduces readers into more personal secrets of the outstanding architect: creator, scholar and academic teacher – being simultaneously a picturesque and friendly person. He was connected mainly with Kraków University of Technology, but sharing also his activity in order to fulfill needs of three other, important academic schools.
The article discusses two questions of Peter F. Strawson’s understanding of the human being as person. The first question scrutinizes Strawson’s philosophical choice between the tradition of Aristotle’s metaphysics and Kant’s ontology. The second question is the Cartesian challenge as presented in Strawson’s postulate of the primacy of the concept of human person. My understanding of the metaphysics proposed in the Individuals and Strawson’s other works underscores a particular affinity between his anthropological postulate and philosophia perennis. However, the Oxford philosopher is related not only to Aristotelian logic and hermeneutic but also to Kant’s conceptual scheme. In the case of the definition that identifies human being as a person we see the unambiguous reliance by Strawson on the thought of Aristotle. The explicit evidence of this reliance is his reference to the corporeality and space-time character of the human beings, manifested by the recognition of ontological priority of particulars before the reality of mental states of affairs. The effect of this analysis is my observation that Strawson has undertaken to close the gap between mental and material reality that was established in Descartes’ ontological difference between res cogitans and res extensa. The aporia of the lack of communication between human consciousness and human corporeality finds its solution in Strawson’s Individuals in concept of relationship between mind and body intended as a transgression over the Cartesian concept. Strawson proposes a recognition of their simultaneous validity, but he does not propose a new ontological position comparable to H.E. Hengstenberg’s, founded on the idea of the constitution of the human person not in two preclusive elements, as the Cartesian mind and body, but in three elements, namely spirit (Geist), corporeality (Leib) and existential principle (Existenzprinzip).
W artykule konfrontuję koncepcję osoby Petera Strawsona z koncepcją osoby Paula Ricoeura, traktując je jako reprezentatywne ilustracje podejścia semantyczno-ontologicznego i pragmatyczno-egzystencjalnego (lub hermeneutycznego) zarazem do problemu języka i do problemu bytu zwanego osobą. Zaznaczam różnice między tymi podejściami, ale wskazuję także na ich punkty wspólne. Zgodnie z przedstawioną interpretacją, Ricoeur w swojej próbie przezwyciężenia ograniczeń semantycznej teorii osoby rozwija i uwypukla wątki, które w sposób marginalny były obecne już w teorii Strawsona, a skądinąd docenia znaczenie tych, które w tej teorii były pierwszoplanowe, chociaż je relatywizuje. Stosunek Ricoeura do Strawsona pokazuje złożoną relację między tzw. filozofią kontynentalną i tzw. filozofią analityczną.
The present study focused on relationships between personality traits, self-efficacy, self-esteem and basic trust, and well-being in context of entrepreneurial activity. Participants were 301 unemployed people, 157 of whom had received a grant from an employment agency to start their own business. Participants completed measures of personality traits, self-efficacy, self-esteem, basic trust, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect. To verify if beliefs about the self and about the world mediated relationships between personality traits and well-being we conducted a multiple-sample SEM. The study results confirm that the beliefs mediate relationships between personality traits and well-being. They also show that different types of beliefs serve a different function, depending on an individual’s circumstances. Among grant acceptors, self-efficacy did not impact well-being, while self-esteem and basic trust had similar functions in both groups.
Subjective Well-Being is related to the Big-Five and to Individualistic and Collectivistic beliefs of Polish adolescents. In the present study, we examined whether Individualism and Collectivism beliefs mediate between the Big-Five and Subjective Well-being among adolescents, young and middle-aged adults. Adolescents (N = 174, 36% men, aged 14–18), young (N = 254, 45% men, aged 19–24) and middle-aged adults (N = 252, 54% men, aged 40–55) completed the NEO-FFI, the Ind-Col20, and measures of Subjective Well-being. The three groups differed on all dimensions. Adolescents reported the highest Neuroticism, the lowest Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, the highest Individualism and Collectivism beliefs and lowest SWB. Among adolescents, SEM analyses indicated that Subjective Well-being was negatively related to Neuroticism and Agreeableness, positively to Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Horizontal Individualism, Horizontal and Vertical Collectivism. Among young and middle-aged adults Subjective Well-being was negatively related to Neuroticism and Horizontal Collectivism, positively to Openness, Conscientiousness, Horizontal and Vertical Individualism. Beliefs partially mediated the effects of traits. Relationships were different for cognitive and affective Subjective Well-being indices.
Humans vary in many aspects of their psychology with differences routinely found in patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, setting individuals apart across time and place. Though many psychologists have attempted to account for these individual differences, one area that has continued to generate interest and disagreement is the concept of motivation. Today, understanding behavioural motivation remains one of the most important questions facing personality theorists. In an attempt to better account for human motivation, the present exploration reviews seminal theoretical positions put forward by Sigmund Freud from a Psychoanalytical perspective and contrastingly, that of Carl Rogers from the Humanistic approach. Critical consideration is specifically applied to how verifiable each perspective may be and the degree of empirical support either account has attained to date. Whilst understanding human motivation is not a new endeavour, the present exploration provides a contemporary critical assessment of traditional psychological explanations.
This research provides a tool to select and prioritize new comers to work based on their preentry organizational commitment propensity through examining links between the big ﬁve personality factors: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness; and three component model of organizational commitment: aﬀective commitment, continues commitment, normative commitment. Findings show that extroversion and openness respectively have positive and negative eﬀects on all three components of organizational commitment. Results gained by Structured Equation Modelling (SEM) indicate neuroticism is negatively related to aﬀective and continues commitment and positively to conscientiousness eﬀects on continues commitment. In the second part of the study, the received results are applied to extract the general equations that enables to estimate new comer’s pre-entry organizational commitment and to rank them using TOPSIS and AHP. The AHP is used to determine the relative weights of commitment criteria and TOPSIS is employed for the ﬁnal ranking of new comers based on these criteria’s.
The content of the study focuses on the issue of the right to work of persons with disabilities from the point of view of the provisions of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities adopted by the General Assembly of United Nations in 2006. The article discusses the formal elements of the national system supporting the professional activity of this group of people. The author also presents opinions of various entities, independent of state authorities, on the compatibility of solutions adopted in our country with the philosophy of the Convention.
We define the need for sense-making as the desire to find reliable connections between the objects, situations, and relationships that people encounter. We have proposed and tested that there are possible individual differences in the need for sense-making and that these individual differences are insightful in characterizing individuals and their behaviors. A correlational study (N = 229) showed that need for sense-making was positively related to self-esteem, extroversion, conscientiousness, openness, and sense of control. Additionally, a higher need for sense-making was associated with greater perception of it as an important part of people’s identity. Thus, need for sense-making is relevant to understanding individual differences and can furthermore comprise a significant element of people’s identity. These results break new ground in the study of individual differences in the need for sense-making and can be of great importance in work and organizational psychology.
According to the psycho-lexical approach in the taxonomy of individual differences, those interpersonal differences, which are the most important for social functioning of individual, have been encoded into natural languages. Therefore by analyzing the lexicons of interpersonal differences, it is possible to identify structures of their descriptions. Application of the psycho-lexical approach in the field of psychology of individual differences lead to obtaining the relatively high consistency regarding scientific taxonomy of personality traits. Also models developed on this basis meet the most important criteria of goodness of the psychological structural models. As a result, the accumulation of knowledge about person’s psychological functioning have been intensified. The aim of the article is to present the specificity of lexical studies and their taxonomical potential for social sciences, as well as key threats and limitations, based on experience of previous psycho-lexical research.
Bullying at work is a long-standing area of research interest that requires investigation of the role of the individual exposed to systematic negative behaviour. Studies using cross-sectional samples and broad personality measures have found some distinguishing personal characteristics of employees who are bullied compared to others. Few, however have applied theoretical frameworks to explain why personality can play a part in why an individual ends up at the receiving end of bullying and harassment at work. This article applies an overall and specific theoretical model, the vulnerability thesis, to investigating the role of temperament in relation to workplace bullying. The results show that (1) some employees exposed to bullying at work also acted as perpetrators (provocative victims), that (2) exposure to bullying at work is connected with temperamental emotional vulnerability, and that (3) hostility and self-oriented aggression mediate the role of personality in the form of temperament in relation to workplace bullying. Strengths and weaknesses and potential practical implications for helpers of employees exposed to bullying at work are discussed.
In integrated approaches to personality (McAdams & Pals, 2006; McCrae & Costa, 1999), it is possible to examine relationships between personality traits, beliefs as characteristic adaptations, and subjective well-being. This research aimed to verify if implicit self-theories (belief about stability of human nature) proposed by Dweck (2000) and life-engagement proposed by Scheier et al. (2006) play a mediating role in relationships between personality traits and satisfaction with life. The relationships were examined with respect to infertility problem. A sample of 120 adults (aged 26–48; M = 36.60; SD = 4.82; 50% women) participated in the research. The mediation hypotheses were examined, and furthermore, four groups of couples were compared in terms of measured variables. The groups were: couples with (1) cured and (2) uncured infertility and couples who were not infertile and (3) have and (4) do not have children. Life-engagement mediated the relationship between Conscientiousness and satisfaction with life in the whole sample. The belief about stability of human nature mediated relationships between subjective well-being and Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Extraversion only among couples with an infertility problem.
Studies based on the most common diagnostic categories do not bring conclusive results concerning the overlapping and distinctive features of anxiety and depression, especially in the areas of attentional functioning, structure of affect, and cognitive emotion regulation. However, a new typology has been proposed which treats anxiety and depression as personality types (Fajkowska, 2013). These types – arousal and apprehension anxiety as well as valence and anhedonic depression – are constructed based on two criteria: specific structure and functions (reactive or regulative). The present paper critically examines the empirical evidence related to this approach. The data mostly confirmed the prediction that the similarities and differences in attentional and affective functioning among the anxiety and depression types would be related to their shared and specific structural and functional characteristics. The new typology turned out to be suitable for integrating the existing research findings by relating them to the structure and functions of anxiety and depression. As a result, it is useful in explaining some of the inconsistencies in literature, as it allows to identify the overlapping and distinctive features of the anxiety and depression types. It also helps to understand the mechanisms contributing to the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression, which might be useful in diagnosis and treatment. However, even though Fajkowska’s approach is an important contribution to the understanding of anxiety and depression, it is not exhaustive. Its limitations are discussed, along with proposed modifications of the theory, as well as further research directions.
The study concerns the functioning of disabled learners at the level of higher education. The period of university studies is usually associated with the change of the life routine practised so far. The changes comprise various fields and bring about the adjustment to new roles. This stage is a chance for becoming independent, for specifying one’s position in the group, for shaping one’s own “young adult world view”18. The article is aimed at presenting the typology of disabled students based on an analysis of the behaviour which they show as members of the academic community. The sources of these behaviour patterns can be sought in various interpersonal and intrapersonal factors resulting from the individual’s character. The presented authorial typology has been presented also in reference to the Personality Traits Theory formulated by Costa and McCrea. This has allowed for broadening this typology with some particular subtypes.
Scribes of the oldest part of the manuscript posted their names in two notes. In the fi rst note the final letter of the scribe’s name is seriously damaged. It is generally believed that his name was Mičьka (Мичька). The author proves that the scribe’s name is a derivative from the suffi x –ko (Mičьko). In the second note the name of the scribe is heavily damaged in the initial part, which results in a number of interpretations. According to the author’s studies the name of the scribe was Potamij (Потамий, gr. PÒtamoj).
The article is devoted to personal nouns with suffi x -ant in Polish and Belarusian. The lexical and semantic analysis of the studied group of words showed that in both languages they belong to the literary variety of language, however, numerous nouns represent rare vocabulary, sometimes characterized stylistically. The overwhelming majority of names defi nes the names of active contractors of activities, less often – passive contractors, and least frequently – names of owners. In addition, the nomina masculina with suffi x -ant belong to the attributive names, defi ning people on the basis of their character traits, tendencies, and often vices. The s tudied lexis include archaic or colloquial derivatives. Among the specialist words, there were examples representing such fi elds as law and judiciary, economics and trade, religion and art, education and science.
From a historical point of view, Peter F. Strawson’s philosophical studies are an important element within contemporary interdisciplinary investigations of the mind-body problem. The aim of this article is to present and analyze Strawson’s program of descriptive metaphysics, along with the associated conception of persons, that he has proposed. In the second part, I also present his non-reductive naturalism, focusing on two of his analyses that belong to the field of mind-body relations: these concern the problem of other minds, and the question of the nomological reduction of mental states of persons to physical ones (i.e. mind-body identity theory). I then point to several possibilities of using Strawson’s conception of persons in the context of issues raised by other questions linked to the mind-body problem (namely, personal identity as it relates to split-brain persons, and the different phases of a person’s development).
The paper summarizes the debate concerning the divine hiddenness argument. First, it presents two versions of the argument that was initially formulated by J.L. Schellenberg and subsequently discussed over the last twenty years and it marks its most important theses. Then the author indicates some possible rebuttals, segregating them according to the challenged premises. Particularly noteworthy, he argues, are these theistic answers that accuse the images of God assumed by the hiddenness argument of excessive anthropomorphism and those that try to point out higher goods justifying divine hiddenness. In conclusion the author claims that the hiddenness argument proves atheism only if by theism one understands theistic personalism. Other positions, such as ultimism or theism of transcendence, are not threatened by the argument.