The author shows the activity of the inhabitants in the process of revitalization which took place in Poznan at the turn of the 20. and 21. century. Overview of actions demonstrates the transformation of instruments and methods of conduct, but also is a presentation process of self-education of all participants: the associations, municipal authorities and residents. Relevant are also the examples of intentional educational and cultural initiatives addressed to the residents and held with residents in the framework of the Urban Renewal Program. Accumulation of these activities led to stimulate of civic awareness, neighborly relationship and local identification, but also initiated the transformation of individual mental. As a result, they developed a multi-threaded relationship: realization by the people of the right to co-decision and shared responsibility influences the attitudes of representatives of the local authorities and a kind of reciprocal social education, leaning to the subjective treatment of all participants of social processes.
City parks play a very important role in an urbanized landscape. They are forms of specially designed green space which combine elements of horticulture with architecture, history and culture. The article presents historical urban parks and old residential-park complexes included in the boundaries of Poznań and currently existing in the wedge-ring system of the urban green space. The aim of the conducted research was to show their historical and current function as well as their general state of preservation and condition. The results are presented in the form of a Table where the historical significance of those objects is compared with their role today.
W artykule podjęto próbę przybliżenia zagadnień związanych z kształtowaniem ważnej sfery publicznej miasta Poznania – ulicy Święty Marcin, której przestrzeń jest przejawem wzajemnego oddziaływania potencjałów: historycznego, estetycznego, kulturotwórczego kolejnych pokoleń. To przestrzeń, która jest efektem ciągłego ścierania się „nowego” ze „starym”. Podejmowane zagadnienia przedstawiono w kontekście uwarunkowań artystycznych, funkcjonalnych, przestrzennych i architektonicznych.
Dependence Between the Residential Area Type and the Sense of Security. The Case of Poznań. The need for safety is one of the most important needs of every person. The sense of security level depends to a great extent on the place of residence. The study aims at showing the relationship between the residential area type and the sense of security in Poznań. The author uses the results of the survey on the crime risk conducted among Poznań inhabitants and assess the sense of security level of the following types of residential area: tenement houses area, blockhouses area, dettached houses area and the city center. In the opinion of inhabitants, the highest sense of security level was in the dettached house area. The following positions included: the city center and the blockhouses area. The lowest sense of security level was characteristic for the tenement houses area. The time of the day was at great importance in the context of respondents assessments, during the day the sense of security level was higher than at night, regardless to the residential area type.
The article is devoted to the development of Polish sociology from the 19th century until the period of the Second Republic, when sociology became an established academic field. The first Polish sociologists studied sociology at various European universities, but later worked in different professions i.e., Supinski was an owner of a textile weaving shop, Krupinski was a priest and a teacher, while Limanowski, Świetochowski and Krzywicki worked as journalists. Their sociological interest was secondary to their professional life. What is interesting is that they first joined European sociological institutions as members of the Institut international de sociologie (The International Institute of Sociology), gave papers at international Sociological congresses and only much later spoke at Polish conferences. They published in „Annee sociologique” and „Revue international de sociologie.” At times they also taught at different European universities, for example Gumplowicz taught at the University of Grazu and Petrazycki in the St. Petersurg University. The first sociology programs were established in Poland after it regained its independence: in 1920 Leon Petrazycki was appointed chair of sociology at the University of Warsaw and Ludwik Krzywicki was appointed chair of a program called the history of socio-political systems. Sociology was treated then as an auxiliary academic field for the study of law. Sociology as an autonomous field was first created in Poznan and its main inspirer was Florian Znaniecki. Not until the second decade of the Second Republic was sociology established as a separate department at the universities in Kraków and Warsaw. At the wake of the WWII sociology was a well established academic field in Poland with its own programs of study, research intstitutes, scholarly journals and a professional association of practitioners.
The paper presents results of numerical calculations of a diaphragm wall model executed in Poznań clay formation. Two selected FEM codes were applied, Plaxis and Abaqus. Geological description of Poznań clay formation in Poland as well as geotechnical conditions on construction site in Warsaw city area were presented. The constitutive models of clay implemented both in Plaxis and Abaqus were discussed. The parameters of the Poznań clay constitutive models were assumed based on authors’ experimental tests. The results of numerical analysis were compared taking into account the measured values of horizontal displacements.
Integration of transport subsystems in transfer nodes of public transport in Poznań based on city railway stations, Poznań, being one of the strongest urban centers in the country, has a significant zone of impact (functional area). A natural consequence of this development model are significant communication issues caused by dynamic development of the suburban area. The solution of those issues is assumed to be basing the public communication system on a railway junction and, on its basis, creating the Poznań Metropolitan Railway. However, to ensure efficient functioning of such a system the need arises to integrate it with other systems of transport using transfer nodes. The aim of this article is to illustrate the potential of creating a polycentric system of multi-modal transfer nodes, based on existing city railway stations (district stations). The study focuses on the perspective of the passenger and the primary research method is the in-depth interview. This enabled to learn the opinion and identify the needs of passengers who use the facilities which are the subject of this study. The study also concentrated on analyzing thee communication behaviors of passengers and analyzing thee functioning of city stations themselves. Additionally, information was also acquired regarding the approximate destination of the passengers’ travel, which further allowed to specify the hypothetical impact range of individual city stations. Results of the study allowed to develop a range of recommendations intended to optimize the functioning of selected city railway stations, from a technical, as well as organization and management perspective. They have the potential to become a basis for developing a concept of sustainable public transport with a metropolitan reach.
Zagadnienie człowieka jest u Descartes’a niejednoznaczne, ponieważ jego rozważania dotyczą najczęściej duszy i ciała branych z osobna. Konsekwencją takiego dualizmu jest rozwój kartezjanizmu albo w kierunku spirytualizmu Malebranche’a, albo materializmu La Mettriego i Condillaca. W artykule rozważam zasady czy racje dla tych dwóch linii rozwojowych. Jednak największą wartość upatruję w odnajdywaniu śladów „prawdziwego człowieka” Descartes’a, którego dualistyczna filozofia praktycznie pomija. Mamy zatem człowieka jako umysł, człowieka jako ciało, oraz człowieka jako złożenie ciała i umysłu. Dysponujemy również koncepcją człowieka jako wolnego i afirmującego swe istnienie poprzez wybór. Jedną z alternatyw tego wyboru jest byt, drugą nicość. Prowadzi to ostatecznie do planu myśli prywatnej, w której nieopisywalny dla nauki człowiek znajduje największe ocalenie, ale w efekcie pozostaje znany tylko samemu sobie.
In the heterogeneous economic space, big cities are development poles that are usually characterized by the best conditions for running a business and the highest level and living conditions. Their role in development processes is the subject of many discussions. On 23 October 2017, at the invitation of the Mayor of Cracow, J. Majchrowski, an external Plenary meeting of the Committee for Spatial Development of the Polish National Academy of Sciences was held in Cracow, the aim of which was to discuss the role of big cities in Poland›s socio-economic development. This article presents the author›s opinions in a synthetic way, presenting the most important issues raised by him during the panel on the importance of Polish metropolises in shaping the development potential of the country and the region. In addition to the fundamental terminological and problematic discussion, the article describes the experience of Poznań as an agglomeration signifi cantly aff ecting the development of the region, formulating in the summary recommendations referring to the practice of regional policy.
The phenomenon of churching (attendance at churches outside parishes of residence) is associated with socio-economic and cultural transformations of society, including general growth of mobility. In this paper titular issue was described against the background of the concept of the life of a city and according to the concept of place. On the ground of the data gained, the presence of churching in the Old Town area in Poznań and its dimensions were primarily proved. This work is an introduction to an empirical research, concerning spatial behaviour of churching people and possible impact of their decisions on city centre functions.
The article presents the process of functional changes in the area of the Metropolis of Poznań, i.e. 22 communes belonging to the Metropolia Poznań Association. The process was examined on the basis of changes in the employment structure and spatially different tendencies and segregation in the scope of dominant functions.
W artykule badam naturę poznania intelektualnego opisaną przez Henri Bergsona w Ewolucji twórczej (1907). W pracy tej teoria wiedzy naukowej i potocznej zyskuje w istocie swój ostateczny kształt; zostaje umieszczona w ewolucji życia. W tym kontekście analizuję charakter relacji wytyczanych przez ludzki rozum oraz rodzaj zależności występującej między poznaniem intelektualnym i rozwojem gatunkowym człowieka. Według Bergsona można stosować z powodzeniem metody rozumu w naukach ścisłych czy przyrodniczych, lecz nie w tych gałęziach wiedzy, w których oddziałuje trwanie. Dlatego błędem jest rozszerzanie praw fizyki i matematyki na zjawiska zachodzące w materii organicznej i w umyśle. Z punktu widzenia epistemologicznego życie i świadomość konstytuują inny, specyficzny dla siebie poziom. Wyznaczenie dziedziny badań właściwej intelektowi i ograniczenie pola jego aktywności pozwala zarazem na przekroczenie relatywizmu poznawczego I. Kanta.
The main goal of this article is to characterise and compare some aspects of Hilary Putnam’s referential theory of meaning and Robert B. Brandom’s inferential theory of meaning. I will do it to indicate some similarities and differences in these theories. It will provide an opportunity for a deeper understanding of these theories and for a more adequate evaluation of how they describe and explain the process of meaning acquisition of linguistic expressions. In his theory of meaning Putnam emphasises the importance of reference understood as a relationship which connects linguistic expressions and extra-linguistic (empirical) reality. Brandom acknowledges inference as a main category useful in characterising the meaning of expressions used in premises and a conclusion of inference. But his theory of meaning is criticised for minimalising the role of an empirical component (demonstratives etc.). He tries to defend his standpoint in the anaphoric theory of reference. Putnam like Brandom claimed that we – as cognitive subjects – are not in a situation in which we learn about the extra-linguistic reality in a direct way. It is the reality itself as well as our cognitive apparatus that play a role in a cognitive process.
The aim of this paper is to discuss possible connections between the categories of mind and life. Some authors argue that life and mind are closely connected or even are two sides of the same phenomenon. I analyze and examine this thesis in the light of different approaches to defining life: the metabolic approach (which stresses the importance of self-maintenance and self-making) and the evolutionary approach (which focuses on evolution by natural selection). The first way of defining life is Maturana and Varela' conception of autopoiesis, the second is Korzeniewski's cybernetic definition of life and van Hateren's modified Darwinian definition of life. Especially interesting is the possibility of connecting mind and life in the evolutionary framework. The text does not provide exact results, but rather it proposes possible modes of thinking of the relation of these two categories.
In the first part of the article, Krzysztof A. Makowski describes how the idea of granting Poland the opportunity to host the 23rd International Congress of Historical Sciences in 2020 in Poznań came about and how Poznań’s application to host the Congress was prepared. Moreover, the author presents the ongoing preparations for the Congress. In the second part of the article, Ewa Domańska discusses the origins and evolution of the idea of “alter-native modernities” and “epi- stemic justice” as leitmotifs of Poznań’s application. She stresses the need and importance of developing an intellectual alliance of East-Central European countries and lists activities that could help raise the region’s status as an important centre of knowledge building.
This contribution to the critical discussion of Ryszard Nycz’s Culture as Verb draws on his use of the parts-of-speech model to submit another formula of conceptualizing culture, based on the adverb, and complementary to the already existing approaches. They can be divided into three classes: those that treat culture as adjective (i.e. all epiphenomenal interpretations which view culture as a set of attributes), those that treat it as noun (i.e. an object, a separate academic discipline), and those that focus on action and the processual nature of culture (hence culture as verb), and even – in association with pragmatist and performative theories of language and the more recent ‘Activist Turn’ in the social sciences – have come to regard culture as culture-in-the-making, constituted and sustained by action (activities, performances). Most important for the adverbial approach are the modalities of culture, manifested in a variety of life styles. The study of culture as adverb (‘how’) can be pursued independently of the trench wars of cultural determinists and functionalists. Responding directly to Culture as Verb, qualifi ed as, chiefl y, an epistemological study, the article calls for a closer examination of the ontological implications of Nycz’s project of reinventing the humanities.