The use of lactoferrin (LF) and/or lactobacillus sp. (LB) to improve animal health and production has increased recently. However, information regarding the immune-modulatory role of LB supplementations either alone or in combination with LF in sheep remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the immune modulating properties and the antioxidant activity of supplementing commercially available LF and/or LB in healthy lambs. For this reason, twenty-four apparently healthy Ossimi lambs were used. After three weeks of acclimatization, the lambs were randomly allocated to four equal-sized groups and assigned to receive one of the following supplements: LB at a dose of ~ 1 g active ingredient/head (group 1), LF at a dose rate of 0.5 gm /head (group 2), a combination of both treatments using the same dosing regimens (group 3), and (group 4) received only 10 mL of isotonic saline and was considered as a control group. All supplements were given orally twice daily for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected from each lamb before starting the experiment (T0) and two weeks (T15), and four weeks (T30) after giving supplements for hematological examinations, serum biochemical analyses, and RT-PCR assays. Our findings demonstrated that lambs receiving LB showed statistically significant (P<0.05) higher values of total leucocytes, lymphocytes and lysozyme activity than those receiving LF. In contrast, lambs that received LF had significantly (P< 0.05) higher values of serum catalase, nitric oxide and GSH with a significantly lower MDA level compared with those supplemented with LB. A combination of LF and LB supplementation elicited maximal up-regulation of Tollip, TLR4, IL-5, and IL-6 gene expression compared with other groups. The results suggest that bovine LF and or LB could be used as useful nutritional supplements to support the immune system in healthy lambs.
In the paper a new method of Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise identification is presented. The method is based on a standardized histogram of instantaneous noise values and processing by Gram-Charlier series. To find a device generating RTS noise by the presented method one should count the number of significant coefficients of the Gram-Charlier series. This would allow to recognize the type of noise. There is always one (first) significant coefficient (c0) representing Gaussian noise. If additional coefficients cr (where r > 0) appear it means that RTS noise (two-level as well as multiple-level) is detected. The coefficient representing the Gaussian component always has the highest value of all. The application of this method will be presented on the example of four devices, each with different noise (pure Gaussian noise signal, noise signal with two-level RTS noise, noise signal with three-level RTS noise and noise signal with not precisely visible occurrence of RTS noise).
Cross layer cooperative protocol which exploits the benefits of physical layer cooperative communication, is one of the widely recognized MAC layer protocol design strategies for future wireless networks. This paper presents performance analysis of a cooperative mac and these performance parameters are compared those of the legacy IEEE 802.11 DCF MAC. Appropriate relay station selection is the main hurdle in designing efficient cooperative MAC protocol for wireless networks. This cooperative mac demonstrated that intermediate relay nodes themselves can initiate cooperation for relaying data frame to the receiver on behalf of the sender. This procedure makes the selection process of a “helper node” more distributed in nature as well as it contributes to increase throughput of a wireless network by reducing the overheads that are usually incurred in the helper selection process. It has been shown by thorough analytical analysis that the proposed cooperative MAC protocol offers higher throughput and lower frame transmission delay in both ideal and error prone wireless environment. These performance metrics are also evaluated while the wireless nodes are mobile as well.