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Abstract

The article presents changes introduced in the Russian military and civic jurisdiction with respect to duels of honour from the eighteenth century through the beginning of the twentieth century. All legal regulations passed during this period are discussed, concentrating on the system of punishments, types of courts, defi nitions of duels as a crime, as well as the everyday procedures of courts in these matters. The question of the socio-cultural specifi city of duels in the Tsarist army, ways of their organisation, and the goals of participants are discussed as well.
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Abstract

The article discusses views and the ideological evolution carried out by Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin, a Russian-American sociologist, philosopher and political activist. Influenced by his observations of the events of 1917, Sorokin radically reformulated his opinions about Marx and Marxism which resulted in his espousing of a traditionalist and anti-revolutionary position. He still shared with Marx his negative diagnosis of the modern world, but proposed a different solution as a remedy. His solution was a purification of the idea of equality by liberating it from reductive materialism. Nevertheless Sorokin’s concept of spiritual equality was as utopian as Marx’s. He presented his ideas in a littleknown novel titled: Предтеча (or Прачечная человеческих душ – ‘предтеча’ means ‘ancestor’ and is commonly referred to John the Baptist). This work is a signal for Sorokin’s denial of Marx’s ideas and his revolutionary zeal.
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Abstract

Artykuł stanowi analizę decyzyjną partnerstwa energetycznego Federacji Rosyjskiej z Republiką Federalną Niemiec oraz Republiką Francuską. Analizie zostały poddane determinanty wpływające na charakter obustronnej współpracy. Praca ukazuje występujące zależności energetyczne z perspektywy wybranych państw oraz cele polityki Federacji Rosyjskiej, a także odpowiada na pytanie o przyczynę podejmowanych działań. Celem pracy jest również analiza korelacji zachodzącej między pozycją polityczną państwa w UE a charakterem partnerstwa energetycznego z Rosją, jak również analiza sektorów gazu ziemnego poszczególnych państw.
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Abstract

The paper describes the political use of symbols of childhood and orphanhood in the current policy of the Russian authorities. At the beginning of the Bolshevik regime, homeless children (bezprizorni) became a subject of interest for the security apparatus organized by F. Dzerzhinsky. At that time, A. Makarenko developed his innovative pedagogical approach. These activities were designed to create a “new Soviet man”. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia again faced the problem of homeless children. After several years, however, children and orphans are now being used as a symbol of vulnerability in the government policy of the Kremlin. As an answer to the so-called “Magnitsky Act”, the Russian authorities implemented the “DimaYakovlev law” prohibiting adoptions of Russian children to the United States. In addition to this, the child as a symbol of innocence and vulnerability is an invariant element in the policy of the Russian authorities. This combines symbolism associated with bravery, dedication and sacrifice, allowing justification of the current political course of power in Russia.
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Abstract

Artykuł charakteryzuje stan badań nad eurazjatyzmem międzywojennym w Polsce współczesnej. Omawia dorobek Romana Bäckera, Ryszada Paradowskiego, Iwony Massaki, Lucjana Suchanka, Andrzeja de Lazari, Sławomira Mazurka i innych.
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