Mesoscale flows of liquid are of great importance for various nano- and biotechnology applications. Continuum model do not properly capture the physical phenomena related to the diffusion effects, such as Brownian motion. Molecular approach on the other hand, is computationally too expensive to provide information relevant for engineering applications. Hence, the need for a mesoscale approach is apparent. In recent years many mesoscale models have been developed, particularly to study flows of gas. However, mesoscale behaviour of liquid substantially differs from that of gas. This paper presents a numerical study of micro-liquids phenomena by a Voronoi Dissipative Particle Dynamics method. The method has its origin from the material science field and is one of very few numerical techniques which can describe correctly molecular diffusion processes in mesoscale liquids. This paper proves that correct prediction of molecular diffusion effects plays predominant role on the correct prediction of behaviour of immersed structures in the mesoscopic flow.
In this paper a prototype framework for simulation of wireless sensor network and its protocols are presented. The framework simulates operation of a sensor network with data transmission, which enables simultaneous development of the sensor network software, its hardware and the protocols for wireless data transmission. An advantage of using the framework is converging simulation with the real software. Instead of creating a model of the sensor network node, the same software is used in real sensor network nodes and in the simulation framework. Operation of the framework is illustrated with examples of simulations of selected transactions in the sensor network.
The opportunity to assess haemolysis in a designed artificial heart seems to be one of the most important stages in construction. We propose a new method for assessing haemolysis level in a rotary blood pump. This method is based on CFD calculations using large eddy simulations (LES). This paper presents an approach to haemolysis estimation and shows examples of numerical simulation. Our method does not determine the value of haemolysis but allows for comparison of haemolysis levels between different artificial heart constructions.
In this article the magnetic memory model with nano-meter size made from iron cells was proposed. For a purpose of determining the model specifications, the magnetic probes group with different geometrical parameters were examined using numeric simulations for the two different time duration of transitions among quasistable magnetic distributions found in the system, derived from the energy minimums. The geometrical parameters range was found, for which the 16 quasi–stable energetic states exist for the each probe. Having considered these results the 4 bits magnetic cells systems can be designed whose state is changed by spin-polarized current. Time dependent current densities and the current electron spin polarization directions were determined for all cases of transitions among quasi–stable states, for discovered set of 4 bits cells with different geometrical parameters. The 16- states cells, with the least geometrical area, achieved the 300 times bigger writing density in comparison to actual semiconductor solutions with the largest writing densities. The transitions among quasi-stable states of cells were examined for the time durations 105 times shorter than that for up to date solutions.
The paper considers the application of statistical properties of backscattered ultrasonic signal for assessment of the trabecular bone status. Computer simulations were conducted to investigate the properties of the ultrasound pulse-echo signal, as it is received on the transducer surface after scattering in trabecular bone. The micro-architecture of trabecular bone was modeled by a random distribution of long and thin cylindrical scatterers of randomly varying diameters and mechanical properties, oriented perpendicular to the ultrasound beam axis. The received echo signal was calculated as a superposition of echoes from all the scatterers present in the scattering volume. The simulated signal envelope was used for statistical processing to compute various parameters like the mean amplitude, the amplitude MSR defined as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation and the amplitude histogram. Results indicated that while for the well-defined trabeculae properties within the simulated bone structure the signal envelope values are Rayleigh distributed the significant departures from Rayleigh statistics may be expected as the thickness of trabeculae become random. The influence of the variation of mechanical properties of the bone tissue building the trabeculae on the bone backscattered signal parameters was not observed.
In the public debate, it is argued that Poland avoided a massive drop in output during the 2008/2009 economic crisis in part thanks to substantial nominal zloty’s depreciation against the euro. The Polish case is often contrasted with Slovakia that adopted the euro in January 2009 and, since the Ecofin Council decision in summer 2008, exhibited virtually no nominal exchange rate volatility while facing deep losses in output. In this paper we attempt to validate this contrast by reversing the roles, i.e. checking if Poland really would have faced the same drop – and Slovakia would have remained relatively resilient – if it had been Poland, not Slovakia, that adopted the euro at that point. Our counterfactual simulations based on a New Keynesian DSGE model indicate that, indeed, the Polish tradable output could have been 10‒15 percent lower than actually observed in 2009, while the Slovak one – approximately 20 percent higher. This asymmetry results mainly from structural differences between the two economies, such as size, openness, share of nontradable sector and foreign trade elasticities. The difference of this size would have been short-lived (3‒4 quarters), and the difference of the nontradable output would have been of much lower magnitude.
Pouring of liquid aluminium is typically accompanied by disturbance of the free surface. During these disturbances, the free surface oxide films can be entrained in the bulk of liquid, also pockets of air can be accidentally trapped in this oxide films. The resultant scattering of porosity in castings seems nearly always to originate from the pockets of entrained air in oxide films. Latest version of ProCast software allows to identify the amount of oxides formed at the free surface and where they are most likely to end-up in casts. During a filling calculation, ProCast can calculate different indicators which allow to better quantify the filling pattern. The fluid front tracking indicator “ Free surface time exposure” has the units [cm2*s]. At each point of the free surface, the free surface area is multiplied by the time. This value is cumulated with the value of the previous timestep. In addition, this value is transported with the free surface and with the fluid flow.Experiments to validate this new functions were executed.
Extremely intense development of civilization requires from foundry casting technologies very high quality and not expensive castings. In the foundries, there are many treatments that allow increasing of the final properties of produced castings such as refining, modification, heat treatment, etc. One of the methods of increasing the quality of the casting by removing inclusions from the liquid alloy is filtration. The use of ceramic-carbon foam filters in filtration process is still analysed phenomenon that allows improving the final properties of castings. A modern method of research, testing and synthesis of innovative chemical compositions allows improving the properties of such filters. In the paper the evaluation of application properties of developed ceramic-carbon bonded foam filters is presented. The quality of the foam filters is evaluated by Computer Tomography and foundry trials in pouring of liquid metal in test molds. Additionally computer simulations were made to visualize the flow characteristics in the foam filter. The analysed filters are the result of the research work of Foundry Research Institute and the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Refractory Materials Department in Gliwice.
The quantitative description of an airlift bioreactor, in which aerobic biodegradation limited by carbonaceous substrate and oxygen dissolved in a liquid takes place, is presented. This process is described by the double-substrate kinetics. Mathematical models based on the assumption of plug flow and dispersion flow of liquid through the riser and the downcomer in the reactor were proposed. Calculations were performed for two representative hydrodynamic regimes of reactor operation, i.e. with the presence of gas bubbles only within the riser and for complete gas circulation. The analysis aimed at how the choice of a mathematical model of the process would enable detecting the theoretical occurrence of oxygen deficiency in the airlift reactor. It was demonstrated that the simplification of numerical calculations by assuming the “plug flow” model instead of dispersion with high Péclet numbers posed a risk of improper evaluation of the presence of oxygen deficiency zones. Conclusions related to apparatusmodelling and process design were drawn on the basis of the results obtained. The paper is a continuation of an earlier publication (Grzywacz, 2012a) where an analysis of single-substrate models of the airlift reactor was presented.
CFD modelling of momentum and heat transfer using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach has been presented for a Kenics static mixer. The simulations were performed with the commercial code ANSYS Fluent 15 for turbulent flow of three values of Reynolds number, Re = 5 000, 10 000 and 18 000. The numerical modelling began in the RANS model, where standard k−ε turbulence model and wall functions were used. Then the LES iterations started from the initial velocity and temperature fields obtained in RANS. In LES, the Smagorinsky–Lilly model was used for the sub-grid scale fluctuations along with wall functions for prediction of flow and heat transfer in the near-wall region. The performed numerical study in a Kenics static mixer resulted in highly fluctuating fields of both velocity and temperature. Simulation results were presented and analysed in the form of velocity and temperature contours. In addition, the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient values for the whole insert length were computed and compared with the literature experimental data. Good compliance of the LES simulation results with the experimental correlation was obtained.
Rock excavation is a basic technological operation during tunnelling and drilling roadways in underground mines. Tunnels and roadways in underground mines are driven into a rock mass, which in the particular case of sedimentary rocks, often have a layered structure and complicated tectonics. For this reason, rock strata often have highly differentiated mechanical properties, diverse deposition patterns and varied thicknesses in the cross sections of such headings. In the field of roadheader technology applied to drilling headings, the structure of a rock mass is highly relevant when selecting the appropriate cutting method for the heading face. Decidedly differentiated values of the parameters which describe the mechanical properties of a particular rock layer deposited in the cross section of the drilled tunnel heading will influence the value and character of the load on the cutting system, generated by the cutting process, power demand, efficiency and energy consumption of the cutting process. The article presents a mathematical modelling process for cutting a layered structure rock mass with the transverse head of a boom-type roadheader. The assumption was made that the rock mass being cut consists of a certain number of rock layers with predefined mechanical properties, a specific thickness and deposition pattern. The mathematical model created was executed through a computer programme. It was used for analysing the impact deposition patterns of rock layers with varied mechanical properties, have on the amount of cutting power consumed and load placed on a roadheader cutting system. The article presents an example of the results attained from computer simulations. They indicate that variations in the properties of the rock cut – as cutting heads are moving along the surface of the heading face – may have, apart from multiple other factors, a significant impact on the value of the power consumed by the cutting process.
This article considers designing of a renewable electrical power generation system for self-contained homes away from conventional grids. A model based on a technique for the analysis and evaluation of two solar and wind energy sources, electrochemical storage and charging of a housing area is introduced into a simulation and calculation program that aims to decide, based on the optimized results, on electrical energy production system coupled or separated from the two sources mentioned above that must be able to ensure a continuous energy balance at any time of the day. Such system is the most cost-effective among the systems found. The wind system adopted in the study is of the low starting speed that meets the criteria of low winds in the selected region under study unlike the adequate solar resource, which will lead to an examination of its feasibility and profitability to compensate for the inactivity of photovoltaic panels in periods of no sunlight. That is a system with fewer photovoltaic panels and storage batteries whereby these should return a full day of autonomy. Two configurations are selected and discussed. The first is composed of photovoltaic panels and storage batteries and the other includes the addition of a wind system in combination with the photovoltaic system with storage but at a higher investment cost than the first. Consequently, this result proves that is preferable to opt for a purely photovoltaic system supported by the storage in this type of site and invalidates the interest of adding micro wind turbines adapted to sites with low wind resources.
According to the European Environment Agency (EEA 2018), air quality in Poland is one of the worst in Europe. There are several sources of air pollution, but the condition of the air in Poland is primarily the result of the so-called low-stack emissions from the household sector. The main reason for the emission of pollutants is the combustion of low-quality fuels (mainly low-quality coal) and waste, and the use of obsolete heating boilers with low efficiency and without appropriate filters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of measures aimed at reducing low-stack emissions from the household sector (boiler replacement, change of fuel type, and thermal insulation of buildings), resulting from environmental regulations, on the improvement of energy efficiency and the emission of pollutants from the household sector in Poland. Stochastic energy and mass balance models for a hypothetical household, which were used to assess the impact of remedial actions on the energy efficiency and emission of pollutants, have been developed. The annual energy consumption and emissions of pollutants were estimated for hypothetical households before and after the implementation of a given remedial action. The calculations, using the Monte Carlo simulation, were carried out for several thousand hypothetical households, for which the values of the technical parameters (type of residential building, residential building area, unitary energy demand for heating, type of heat source) were randomly drawn from probability distributions developed on the basis of the analysis of the domestic structure of households. The model takes the coefficients of correlation between the explanatory variables in the model into account. The obtained results were multiplied so that the number of hypothetical households was equal to 14.1 million, i.e. the real number of households in Poland. The obtained results allowed for identifying the potential for reducing the emission of pollutants such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and nitrogen oxides, and improving the energy efficiency as a result of the proposed and implemented measures, aimed at reducing low-stack emission, resulting from the policy. The potential for emissions of gaseous pollutants is 94% for CO, 49% for NOx, 90% for dust, and 87% for SO2. The potential for improving the energy efficiency in households is around 42%.
This work presents the methodology for analyzing the impact of ground vibrations induced during the drilling of gas/oil exploration wells on the surrounding constructions, as well as on humans and the natural environment. In the primary stage, this methodology is based on measurements of ground vibrations induced by a specific type of drilling system in the so-called reference site. In the next stage, ground vibrations are estimated in similar conditions to another design site, these conditions are assumed for a given drilling system, treated as a vibration source. In both sites, special seismic and geotechnical data are collected to construct numerical models for dynamic analyses. Finally, if it is required, a protection system is proposed with respect to the drilling technology and local conditions. The methodology presented has been tested on the terrain of an active natural gas mine used as the design site, and located in the southeastern part of Poland. The reference site was placed in the terrain of a working drilling system in similar conditions in the central part of Poland. Based on the results of numerical simulations, one may verify the different locations of the drilling rig in the design site with respect to the existing industrial structure. Due to the hazard from destructive ground vibrations, a certain vibroisolation system was proposed at the design site. Based on the results of numerical simulations one could rearrange the components of the drilling system in order to provide maximum security for the surrounding structures.
The mathematical model and numerical simulations of the solidification of a cylindrical shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity by liquid metal and feeding the casting through the riser during its solidification, are presented in the paper. Mutual dependence of thermal and flow phenomena were taken into account because have an essential influence on solidification process. The effect of the riser shape on the effectiveness of feeding of the solidifying casting was determined. In order to obtain the casting without shrinkage defects, an appropriate selection of riser shape was made, which is important for foundry practice. Numerical calculations of the solidification process of system consisting of the casting and the conical or cylindrical riser were carried out. The velocity fields have been obtained from the solution of momentum equations and continuity equation, while temperature fields from solving the equation of heat conductivity containing the convection term. Changes in thermo-physical parameters as a function of temperature were considered. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve the problem.
By simulating the actual working conditions of a cable, the temperature variation rule of different measuring points under different load currents was analyzed. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) was established, and the difference and influence factors between the simulation temperature and the experimental measured value were discussed, then the influence of thermal conductivity on the operating temperature of the conductor layer was studied. Finally, combined with the steady-state thermal conductivity model and the experimental measured data, the relation between thermal conductivity and load current was obtained.
The engine simulations have become an integral part of engine design and development. They are based on approximations and assumptions. The precision of the results depends on the accuracy of these hypotheses. The simplified models of frozen composition, chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics provide the compositions of combustion products for engine cycle simulations. This paper evaluates the effects of different operating conditions and hypotheses on the exergetic analysis of a spark-ignition engine. The Brazilian automotive market has the highest number of flex-fuel vehicles. Therefore, a flex-fuel engine is considered for simulations in order to demonstrate the effects of these different hypotheses. The stroke length and bore diameter have the same value of 80 mm. The in-cylinder irreversibility is calculated for each case at the closed part of the engine cycle. A comparative analysis of these hypotheses provides a comprehensive evaluation of their effects on exergetic analysis. Higher values of accumulated irreversibility are observed for the oversimplified hypothesis.
Gas-liquid microreactors find an increasing range of applications both in production, and for chemical analysis. The most often employed flow regime in these microreactors is Taylor flow. The rate of absorption of gases in liquids depends on gas-side and liquid-side resistances. There are several publications about liquid-side mass transfer coefficients in Taylor flow, but the data about gas-side mass transfer coefficients are practically non existent. We analysed the problem of gas-side mass transfer resistance in Taylor flow and determined conditions, in which it may influence the overall mass transfer rate. Investigations were performed using numerical simulations. The influence of the gas diffusivity, gas viscosity, channel diameter, bubble length and gas bubble velocity has been determined. It was found that in some case the mass transfer resistances in both phases are comparable and the gas-side resistance may be significant. In such cases, neglecting the gas-side coefficient may lead to errors in the experimental data interpretation.
The numerical investigation of the mixing process in complex geometry micromixers, as a function of various inlet conditions and various micromixer vibrations, was performed. The examined devices were two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) types of serpentine micromixers with two inlets. Entering fluids were perturbed with a wide range of the frequency (0 - 50 Hz) of pulsations. Additionally, mixing fluids also entered in the same or opposite phase of pulsations. The performed numerical calculations were 3D to capture the proximity of all the walls, which has a substantial influence on microchannel flow. The geometry of the 3D type serpentine micromixer corresponded to the physically existing device, characterised by excellent mixing properties but also a challenging production process (Malecha et al., 2009). It was shown that low-frequency perturbations could improve the average mixing efficiency of the 2D micromixer by only about 2% and additionally led to a disadvantageously non-uniform mixture quality in time. It was also shown that high-frequency mixing could level these fluctuations and more significantly improve the mixing quality. In the second part of the paper a faster and simplified method of evaluation of mixing quality was introduced. This method was based on calculating the length of the contact interface between mixing fluids. It was used to evaluate the 2D type serpentine micromixer performance under various types of vibrations and under a wide range of vibration frequencies.
The object of investigation was the one-strand tundish with flow control device such as gas permeable barrier (GPB). The aim of this flow control device was to activate the motion of liquid steel in the tundish longitudinal axis region. Computer simulation of the liquid steel flow and argon behaviour in isothermal turbulent motion conditions was done using the Ansys-Fluent computer program. For the validation of the hydrodynamic patterns obtained from computer simulations, a isothermal tundish glass model was used. Tundish glass model enables the recording of the visualization of fluid medium motion through the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. Based on computer simulations, the liquid steel flow path lines in the tundish with GPB was obtained. For explain the hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in the tundish working space, the Buoyancy number has been calculated.
This paper presents a numerical investigation of fracture criterion influence on perforation of high-strength 30PM steel plates subjected to 7.6251 mm Armour Piercing (AP) projectile. An evaluation of four ductile fracture models is performed to identify the most suitable fracture criterion. Included in the paper is the Modified Johnson-Cook (MJC) constitutive model coupled separately with one of these fracture criteria: the MJC fracture model, the Cockcroft-Latham (CL), the maximum shear stress and the constant failure strain models. A 3D explicit Lagrangian algorithm that includes both elements and particles, is used in this study to automatically convert distorted elements into meshless particles during the course of the computation. Numerical simulations are examined by comparing with the experimental results. The MJC fracture model formulated in the space of the stress triaxiality and the equivalent plastic strain to fracture were found capable of predicting the realistic fracture patterns and at the same time the correct projectile residual velocities. However, this study has shown that CL one parameter fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give good results as the MJC failure criterion. The maximum shear stress fracture criterion fails to capture the shear plugging failure and material fracture properties cannot be fully characterized with the constant fracture strain.
This work presents a numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by friction stir welding, FSW, process. The numerical simulation of aviation structure joined by FSW was created. The simulation uses thermomechanical coupled formulation. Th model required creation of finite elements representing sheets, stiffeners and welds, definition of material models and boundary conditions. The thermal model took into account heat conduction and convection assigned to appropriate elements of the structure. Time functions were applied to the description of a heat source movement. The numerical model included the stage of welding and the stage of releasing clamps. The output of the simulation are residual stresses and deformations occurring in the panel. Parameters of the global model (the panel model) were selected based on the local model (the single joint model), the experimental verification of the local model using the single joint and the geometry of the panel joints.
The current numerical study focuses on the feasibility of furnishing thermal comfort in a structure, by using paraffin wax stored on a plate below the ceiling in a multi-storey building. The method is aimed to reduce energy demands at the increasing thermal loads. In summer, in daytime, walls of the building are exposed to the ambient thermal load, and heat transferred inside is absorbed by the melting wax. The study is numerical. It relates to temperature variations outside and inside, coupled with heat conduction and accumulation in walls, with radiation between the surfaces, with natural convection of air inside and melting of the wax at the ceiling. Fins spacing on the storage plate, visualization of the melting process, and its parametric investigation provide an insight into the physical phenomena. Temperature and flow fields were investigated for 3 mm and 12 mm thick layers of wax. At the specified conditions of the present study a 3 mm layer provides thermal comfort for most of the day, while a 6 mm layer may suffice for the entire day. Fluent 6.3 software was used in the computations.
In contemporary high-pressure die casting foundries, the mastery of each sequence in the production cycle is more and more important. In the paper, an example of virtual analysis of gearbox casting from Al alloy will be presented. It includes a large variety of parameters, as follows: choosing of appropriate foundry technology, calculation of computer simulation of casting process which takes into account the filling process of cold chamber and filling of cavity, model description of three phases in high-pressure die casting, flow of molten metal, solidification, formation of stress and deformations. Additionally, the optimization of cooling and heating systems will be compared with calculated volume defects, dimensions of castings and their deformations with experimentally obtained values.
The cohesion and internal friction angle were characterized as quadratic functions of strain and were assumed to follow the Mohr-Coulomb criterion after the yield of peak strength. These mechanical parameters and their variations in post-peak softening stage can be exactly ascertained through the simultaneous solution based on the data points of stress-strain curves of triaxial compression tests. Taking the influence of the fault into account, the variation of strata pressure and roadway convergence with coal advancement, the temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load were numerically simulated by FLAC3D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) using the ascertained post-peak mechanical parameters according to the cohesion weakening and friction strengthening model. The change mechanism of axial load of single rock bolt as abutment pressure changes was analyzed, through the comparison analysis with the results of axial bolt load by field measurements at a coal mine face. The research results show that the simulated results such as the period of main roof weighting, temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load are in accordance with field measurement results, so the validity of the numerical model is testified. In front of the working face, the front abutment pressure increases first and then decreases, finally tends to be stable. A corresponding correlation exists between the variation of axial bolt load and rock deformation along the bolt body. When encountered by a fault, the maximum abutment pressure, the influential range of mining disturbance and the roadway convergence between roof and floor before the working face are all increased. In the roadways along the gob, axial bolt loads on the side of the working face decrease, while the other side one increases after the collapse of the roof. As superficial surrounding rock mass is damaged, the anchoring force of rock bolts will transfer to inner rock mass for balancing the tensile load of the bolts.