The paper is devoted to the strength analysis of a simply supported three layer beam. The sandwich beam consists of: two metal facings, the metal foam core and two binding layers between the faces and the core. In consequence, the beam is a five layer beam. The main goal of the study is to elaborate a mathematical model of this beam, analytical description and a solution of the three-point bending problem. The beam is subjected to a transverse load. The nonlinear hypothesis of the deformation of the cross section of the beam is formulated. Based on the principle of the stationary potential energy the system of four equations of equilibrium is derived. Then deflections and stresses are determined. The influence of the binding layers is considered. The results of the solutions of the bending problem analysis are shown in the tables and figures. The analytical model is verified numerically using the finite element analysis, as well as experimentally.
O b j e c t i v e s: The aim of study was to investigate the association between anxiety, depression, stress and determinants of quality of life among Iranian students. M e t h o d s: The questionnaires were completed by 275 students. The random sampling was conducted in two phases, the stratified sampling which some classes were selected among different classes of faculty of health and at the second phase, in each class the number of students who had the requirements to enter in the study were selected randomly. the logistic regression to find out the association between demographic characteristics with the quality of life was run and according to the normality status of the distribution of data the parametric or non-parametric tests were used. R e s u l t s: In the univariable model, the students that were living in their own homes had the odds of 2.18 times more than the others to have a higher quality of life level (95% CI: 1.07–4.45). In the multi variable model the anxiety and stress were significantly related to the quality of life and for increasing each 1 unit in the amount of anxiety and stress the odds of a better quality of life decreases 0.19 and 0.03 respectively. Even after adjusting for other covariates – in the multivariable model – both anxiety and stress were associated with the quality of life. C o n c l u s i o n: It is useful for the universities to understand different aspects of the students’ lives which are under the influence of stress, anxiety and depression, and also determining the resources from which they are originated.
Microbes living in the polar regions have some common and unique strategies to respond to thermal stress. Nevertheless, the amount of information available, especially at the molecular level is lacking for some organisms such as Antarctic psychrophilic yeast. For instance, it is not known whether molecular chaperones in Antarctic yeasts play similar roles to those from mesophilic yeasts when they are exposed to heat stress. Therefore, this project aimed to determine the gene expression patterns and roles of molecular chaperones in Antarctic psychrophilic Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 that was exposed to heat stress. G. antarctica PI12 was grown at its optimal growth temperature of 12ºC and later exposed to heat stresses at 16ºC and 20ºC for 6 hours. Transcriptomes of those cells were extracted, sequenced and analyzed. Thirty-three molecular chaperone genes demonstrated differential expression of which 23 were up-regulated while 10 were down-regulated. Functions of up-regulated molecular chaperone genes were related to protein binding, response to a stimulus, chaperone binding, cellular response to stress, oxidation, and reduction, ATP binding, DNA-damage response and regulation for cellular protein metabolic process. On the other hand, functions of down-regulated molecular chaperone genes were related to chaperone-mediated protein complex assembly, transcription, cellular macromolecule metabolic process, regulation of cell growth and ribosome biogenesis. The findings provided information on how molecular chaperones work together in a complex network to protect the cells under heat stress. It also highlights the evolutionary conserved protective role of molecular chaperones in psychrophilic yeast, G. antarctica, and mesophilic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The phytotoxic effects of fluoride and its derivatives on the seeds and seedlings of the Colobanthus apetalus and Colobanthus quitensis were studied. This is a first study to evaluate the influence of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the morphophysiological and biochemical processes on two Colobanthus species. The influence of various concentrations of NaF (9 mM, 19 mM, 29 mM) on the germination capacity and germination rate of seeds, seedlings growth and the proline content of plant tissues was analyzed under laboratory conditions (20/10°C, 12/12 h). The seeds of C. apetalus were collected from a greenhouse, whereas the seeds of C. quitensis were collected in Antarctica and in a greenhouse (Olsztyn, Poland). The tested concentrations of NaF did not suppress the germination of C. apetalus seeds, but the germination of C. quitensis seeds was inhibited. Sodium fluoride mainly inhibited root growth of C. apetalus and C. quitensis. In both analyzed species, the free proline content of seedlings increased significantly under exposure to NaF. The results of this study clearly indicate that C. apetalus and C. quitensis are highly resistant to NaF stress.
The article presents an analysis of stresses in the current tool system of the die during the implementation of the third forging operation of the screw M12 class 10.9 with cylinder head and hexagonal socket. It was assumed that the level of negative cracking due to stress can be reduced by using a mounting interference between the die and the tube blank. Due to the design of the tool system value of the die, the interference value cannot be too large. Therefore, an analysis of the influence of the interference between the die and the tube blank in a die tool system on the value and distribution of stresses in the individual components. An analysis of the assembly stresses and the stresses occurring during the process of deformation of the shaped head of the screw was done. The calculations were performed using a commercial software package MARC / Mentat.
The paper discusses a theoretical and an experimental analyses of steel wire drawing in conical drawing dies with a varying length of the die sizing portion. The theoretical analysis was performed in the Drawing 2D, where the wire temperature and drawing stress were determined. The theoretical study was verified by the measurement of drawing force under laboratory conditions and by industrial multi-stage drawing tests carried out under commercial conditions. A relationship has been shown to exist between die sizing portion length and wire temperature and drawing stress.
This paper presents the methodology for determining thermal strains and stresses during heating the charge in a rotary furnace. The calculations were made with the original software, which uses the finite element method. The heat transfer boundary conditions used for computing were verified on the basis of industrial tests. Good compatibility between the experimental data and numerical calculations was obtained. The possibility of the material cracking occurrence was checked for a set exhaust gas temperature distribution on the furnace length. As a result, it was possible to develop steel heating curves characterized by short process times.
The numerical algorithm of thermal phenomena is based on the solution of the heat conduction equations in Petrov-Galerkin’s formula using the finite element method. In the modeling of phase transformation in the solid state, the models based on the diagrams of continuous heating and continuous cooling (CHT and CCT). In the modeling of mechanical phenomena, equations of equilibrium and constitutive relationships were adopted in the rate form. It was assumed that the hardened material is elastic-plastic, and the plasticizing can be characterized by isotropic, kinematic or mixed strengthening. In the model of mechanical phenomena besides thermal, plastic and structural strains, the transformations plasticity was taken into account. Thermo-physical size occurring in the constitutive relationship, such as Young’s modulus and tangential modulus, while yield point depend on temperature and phase composition of the material. The modified Leblond model was used to determine transformation plasticity. This model was supplemented by an algorithm of modified plane strain state, advantageous in application to the modeling of mechanical phenomena in slender objects. The problem of thermoelasticity and plasticity was solved by the FEM. In order to evaluate the quality and usefulness of the presented numerical models, numerical analysis of temperature fields, phase fractions, stresses and strains was performed, i.e. the basic phenomena accompanying surface layer of progressive-hardening with a movable heat source of slender elements made of tool steel for cold work.
Secure and cost-effective power generation has become very important nowdays. Care must be taken while designing and operating modern steam power plants. There are regulations such as German boiler regulations (Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301) or European Standards that guide the user how to operate the steam power plants. However, those regulations are based on the quasi-steady state assumption and one dimensional temperature distribution in the entire element. This simplifications may not guarantee that the heating and cooling operations are conducted in the most efficient way. Thus, it was important to find an improved method that can allow to establish optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the maximum total stresses in the construction element are in the allowable limits and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. This paper summarizes mathematical descriptions how to optimize shut down process of power block devices. The optimization formulation is based on the assumption that the maximum total stresses in the whole construction element should be kept within allowable limits during cooling operation. Additionally, the operation should be processed in the shortest time possible.
Mechanical properties and residual stresses of friction stir welded and autogenous tungsten inert gas welded structural steel butt welds have been studied. Friction stir welding (FSW) of structural steel butt joints has been carried out by in-house prepared tungsten carbide tool with 20 mm/ min welding speed and 931 rpm tool rotation. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of the butt joints was carried out with welding current, arc voltage and the welding speed of 140 amp, 12 V and 90 mm/min respectively. Residual stress measurement in the butt welds has been carried out in weld fusion zone and heat affected zone (HAZ) by using blind hole drilling method. The magnitude of longitudinal residual stress along the weld line of TIG welded joints were observed to be higher than friction stir welded joint. In both TIG and FSW joints, the nature of longitudinal stress in the base metal was observed to be compressive whereas in HAZ was observed to be tensile. It can be stated that butt welds produced with FSW process had residual stress much lower than the autogenous TIG welds.
Construction elements of supercritical power plants are subjected to high working pressures and high temperatures while operating. Under these conditions high stresses in the construction are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stress limit. The goal is to find optimum operating parameters that can assure safe heating and cooling processes [1-5]. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the allowable stresses are not exceeded and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. In this work new numerical method for determining optimum working parameters is presented. Based on these parameters heating operations were conducted. Stresses were monitored during the entire processes. The results obtained were compared with the German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301.
Temperature related decrease of steam turbine components is one of the main transient processes that occur during a typical long-term operation. With a natural cooling (no user interference) it takes more than 14 days before the temperature of components reaches the level that allows to open and repair a turbine. It is then reasonable to apply a forced cooling in order to decrease the time between a shut-down of a power generating unit and a beginning of a repair. This paper presents the analysis of application of a forced cooling process to supercritical steam turbines. The main problems under the investigation are the safety issues of the process and the optimization of cooling conditions. The paper describes the safety restrictions and the optimization criteria. The process is analyzed in numerical simulations conducted for various cooling conditions.
The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the uterine tissues in diagnosis of canine pyometra. Fourteen samples of uterine tissues from female dogs with pyometra and twelve samples of healthy uteruses (control) were used. The concentrations of GSH and vitamin C were determined in the uterine tissue homogenates using spectrophotometric methods. The concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results obtained showed the significantly lower (p<0.05) concentration of GSH and the trend towards lower concentration of vitamin C in the pyometra samples compared to the control. The concentrations of Cu and Zn were similar in the uterine tissues from female dogs with pyometra and those from healthy female dogs. The lower GSH and vitamin C concentrations in the uterine tissues of female dogs with pyometra indicate that the non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms are impaired in the uterus of dogs with pyometra. These findings suggest that the imbalance of oxidative-antioxidative can play an important role in pathogenesis of canine pyometra.
Globally more than 5.2 billion hectares of farming fields are damaged through erosion, salinity and soil deterioration. Many salt stress tolerant bacteria have plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics that can be used to overcome environmental stresses. Isolation and screening of salt-tolerant endophytes from Salicornia brachiata were achieved through surface sterilization of leaves followed by cultivation on 4% NaCl amended media. Performance of isolates towards indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, ammonia production, siderophore production and stress tolerance were determined. On the basis of the highest plant growth promoting activity, SbCT4 and SbCT7 isolates were tested for plant growth promotion with wheat and maize crops. In the present study, a total of 12 morphologically distinct salt-tolerant endophytic bacteria was cultured. Out of 12 isolates, 42% of salt-tolerant endophytes showed phosphate solubilization, 67% IAA production, 33% ACC-deaminase activity, 92% siderophore production, 41.6% ammonia production and 66% HCN production. A dendrogram, generated on the basis of stress tolerance, showed two clusters, each including five isolates. The bacterial isolates SbCT4 and SbCT7 showed the highest stress tolerance, and stood separately as an independent branch. Bacterial isolates increased wheat shoot and root dry weights by 60–82% and 50–100%, respectively. Similarly, improved results were obtained with maize shoot (27–150%) and root (80–126%) dry weights. For the first time from this plant the bacterial isolates were identified as Paenibacillus polymyxa SbCT4 and Bacillus subtilis SbCT7 based on phenotypic features and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Paenibacillus polymyxa SbCT4 and B. subtilis SbCT7 significantly improved plant growth compared to non-inoculated trials.
Correctional staff is particularly exposed to occupational stress which in turn can have a negative impact on their job performance. This study attempted to analyse the role of personality, organizational factors, and stress coping strategies in shaping job satisfaction. 163 correctional staff members who were being trained at the Central Training Centre of Correctional Services in Kalisz, Poland, participated in the study. The following tools were used: The Bochum Inventory of Personal Work Features (BIP), the Multiphasic Inventory for Measuring Coping (COPE), and the Satisfaction with Job Scale (SSP). Staff working directly with inmates scored the lowest in terms of job satisfaction. Social sensibility is a predictor of job satisfaction among each study subgroup and each correctional department and correctional staff as a whole. Correlates of job satisfaction among correctional officers were: Active coping with stressful situations and Seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons.
An algorithm of determination of mechanical stresses and deformations of the magnetic circuit shape, caused by forces of magnetic origin, is presented in this paper. The mechanical stresses cause changes of magnetizing characteristics of the magnetic circuit. The mutual coupling of magnetic and mechanical fields was taken into account in the algorithm worked out. A computational experiment showed that it was possible to include the interaction of both fields into one numerical model. The elaborated algorithm, taking into account the impact of mechanical stresses on magnetic parameters of construction materials, can be used in both the 2D and the 3D type field-model.
A thermoelastic boundary value problem of a hollow circular disc made of functionally graded materials with arbitrary gradient is analysed. The steady-state temperature distribution is assumed to be the function of the radial coordinate with prescribed temperature at the inner and outer cylindrical boundary surfaces. The material properties are assumed to be arbitrary smooth functions of the radial coordinate. A coupled system of ordinary differential equations containing the radial displacement and stress function is derived and used to get the distribution of thermal stresses and radial displacements caused by axisymmetric mechanical and thermal loads. General analytical solutions of functionally graded disc with thermal loads are not available. The results obtained by the presented numerical method are verified by an analytical solution. The considered analytical solution is valid if the material properties, except the Poisson ratio, are expressed as power functions of the radial coordinate.
Twist extrusion is a processing method involving the extrusion of a sample with a prismatic cross-section using a tool composed of four prismatic parts bisected by a screw component. A beneficial change in mechanical durability is one of the main factors enabling the use of highly durable Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys to construct functional components of non-stationary robots. As part of the present research, ANSYS® software was used to simulate a twist extrusion process. An analysis of a sample entering and passing through the entire twisting area was performed, up to the point of full twisting of the base of the sample. The stress conditions in the sample were analysed as it passed through the twisting area. The highest stress values (reaching up to 600 MPa) were detected at the tips of the sample face as the sample exited the twisting area. The lowest stress values, at around 170 MPa, were detected at the side edges of the sample.
One of the major concerns of the power energy industries is a proper operation of steam power blocks. Pressurized working medium and high temperature cause very high stresses in the construction elements such as collectors, separators or steam valves. They are exposed to sudden temperature and pressure changes that cause high stresses at certain points. Additionally, the cyclic character of loading causes material fatigue, known as low-cyclic fatigue, which may lead to the formation of fracture. Thus, methodologies offered by many companies should ensure reliable and safe operation of steam power blocks. The advanced numerical solutions for determining time-optimum medium temperature changes are presented. They are based on Levenberg-Marquardt and nonlinear programming by quadratic Lagrangian methods. The methods allow us to find parameters for start-up and shut-down operation that can reduce total stresses to limits governed by European regulations. Furthermore, the heating and cooling operations are conducted in a shortest time possible.
Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.
The volume changes caused by coupled temperature and moisture variations in early-age concrete elements lead to formation of stresses. If a restraint exists along the contact surface of mature concrete against which a new concrete element has been cast, generated stresses are mostly of a restraint origin. In engineering practice a wide range of externally restrained concrete elements can be distinguished such as tank walls or bridge abutments cast against an old set foundation, in which early-age cracking may endanger their durability or functionality. Therefore, for years methods were being developed to predict early-age stresses and cracking risk of externally restrained concrete elements subjected to early-age thermal-moisture effects. The paper presents the comparative study of the most recognised analytical approaches: the method proposed in EC2, the method proposed by ACI Committee 207 and the method developed at the Luleå University of Technology.
Metallographic investigations and a computer simulation of stresses in a gravity die-casting bushing were performed. Simulation of the casting process, solidification of the thick-walled bushing and calculations of the stress was performed using MAGMA5.3 software. The size variability of phases κIIaffecting the formation of phase stresses σf, depending on the location of the metallographic test area, was identified. The distribution of thermal σtand shrinkage stresses σs, depending on the location of the control point SC in the bushing's volume, was estimated. Probably the nature of these stresses will change slightly even after machining. This can cause variations in operating characteristics (friction coefficient, wear). Due to the strong inhomogeneity of the stress distribution in the bushing's casting, it is necessary to perform further tests of the possibility to conduct thermal treatment guaranteeing homogenization of the internal stresses in the casting, as well as to introduce changes in the bushing's construction and the casting technology. The paper presents the continuation of the results of research aimed at identifying the causes of defects in the thick-walled bushing, die-casting made of CuAl10Fe5Ni5Cr aluminium bronze.