When Zamość was being built the Fortress was in a close connection with the geometry of view. This was reflected both in the utilitarian and aesthetic sphere and concerned the urban scale as well as the scale of long exposure. The visual study conducted within the Study of the shaping of postfortress areas of Zamość Fortress allowed for assessing the contemporary state of exposure and for identification of the correction opportunities. The effect of the study has become the essential element of the design concept in both the compositional and in the part related to the tourist access.
A mine cannot function without monitoring systems: environmental, basic mining machinery and equipment. The exploitation of ore in the mine depends heavily on properly functioning machines and mining equipment, and acceptable for the miner technical environmental conditions occurring in underground excavations. The monitoring systems of the technical environment in underground mines are primarily telemetry and gasometry systems. The first part of the article shows the typical structure of gasometry systems operating in the Polish underground mines. The existing provisions include the so-called security systems of the mining plant. The article presents a quantitative summary of the telephone exchange types and count of main telecommunication lines operating in these systems. Monitoring systems of machines and mining equipment are an essential element of the effec-tive management of the mine, because they affect the safe operation and increase time of effi-ciency equipment. The second part of the article shows selected monitoring systems of mining machinery and equipment currently used in the dispatcher rooms of mines. Attention was paid to the monitoring systems, which are only software tools as well as those in which additionally use dedicated IT solutions for these systems, hardware and measuring tools. The table shows the types of monitoring systems and technological configurations used in underground mines, preferred for them.
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of Level -1/Level -2 visual perspective -taking (VPT -1/VPT -2) with theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF). Seventy -six adults aged 18 to 48 years participated in the study. To compare the relationships of the two levels of perspective -taking with the aforementioned abilities, the same stimuli were used in both Level -1 and Level -2 trials of the VPT task. ToM abilities were evaluated with the Strange Story task, and EF using the TMT and WCST tests. It was found that controlling for age -related differences, VPT -1 was not associated with either ToM or such components of EF as executive control and set -shifting. VPT -2 was positively related to ToM, but it was not related to EF. The relationship between VPT -2 and ToM was specific, not mediated by domain -general processing capabilities. The obtained results provide further evidence to support the view that distinct mechanisms underlie Level -1 and Level -2 perspective -taking.
The aim of this study is to present an exemplary cartographic visualization of fi re hydrants data consisting of a set of thematic maps containing various information related to the location of hydrants, buildings and driveways in geographic space, and relationships existing between them. Identification of these relationships requires spatial analysis, and illustrating them requires the use of appropriate cartographic presentation methods. The study was conducted on a part of the city of Poznan using data on hydrants’ location and type collected and provided by the Fire Department. Geometric data, obtained using geoprocessing algorithms, were assigned appropriate symbols, which lets differentiate them qualitatively and quantitatively. An emphasis is placed on the use of adequate visual variables and on the cartographic communication efficiency. The result of the study is a cartographic visualization in the form of series of thematic maps arranged in a logical sequence, and providing information about the secured area. The thematic layers presenting the same area were arranged in different arrangements with maintenance of the reference layers, ensuring the ease of correlation. Such a cartographic visualization provides knowledge about the spatial distribution and diversity of objects and the relationships between them. It may be an important source of knowledge both at the identification stage and at the operational stage when conducting a fire fighting action.
Previous research reported about high comorbidity between asthma and neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently, asthma was associated also with executive functions poorness. The current study aimed to investigate the verbal and visual memory performances among fifteen asthmatic kindergarten children compared to the performances of other fifteen healthy kindergarten children. The results showed that the asthmatic group revealed poor performances in the immediate short term verbal memory and the verbal working memory tests but not in the verbal learning test as it was compared to the healthy group. In addition, the asthmatic group revealed poor performances in the visual memory tasks compared to the healthy group. The results were explained in light of the assumption that poor executive functions might be interfere the process of managing the attentional resources which are needed through the process of memory encoding and retrieval.
The aim of the paper was to develop determination methods of sedimentation characteristics using PIV image anemometry and suspension image analysis. Two methods of the investigation of sed- imentation process based on visualization techniques were developed. In the first one, using PIV method, vector fields of the velocity of settling particles are determined and then average particle velocities are calculated to establish the so called sedimentation dynamics curve. In the second one, the methods of suspension image analysis are utilized to determine the positions of the upper dis- continuity and to establish the sedimentation curve. Laboratory research on the sedimentation of agalit particles suspended in glycerine was conducted (using PIV method). Additionally, industrial research on the sedimentation of water-absorbing granular material used after the first carbonation (carbonation I) was conducted in a sugar factory (using the second method). The research consisted of photographic registration of images of the settling suspension by means of the time-lapse photog- raphy technique. A laboratory study was conducted for four values of the volume concentration of agalit particles in glycerine (0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 vol%). The research methodology, the scope of the conducted measurements and sample research results together with conclusions are presented in this paper.
This paper presents for the first time X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) analysis as a technique for Silurian graptolite detection in rocks. The samples come from the Jantar Bituminous Claystones Member of the Opalino core, Baltic Basin, northern Poland. Images were obtained with spatial resolution of 25 μm, which enabled the authors to create a 3-D visualization and to calculate the ratio of fissure and graptolite volume to the total sample volume. A set of μCT slices was used to create a 3-D reconstruction of graptolite geometry. These μCT slices were processed to obtain a clearly visible image and the volume ratio. A copper X-ray source filter was used during exposure to reduce radiograph artifacts. Visualization of graptolite tubaria (rhabdosomes) enabled Demirastrites simulans to be identified. Numerical models of graptolites reveal promising applications for paleontological research and thus for the recognition and characterization of reservoir rocks.
In the paper the author has described the visualization methods in acoustic flow fields and show how these methods may assist scientists to gain understanding of complex acoustic energy flow in real-life field. A graphical method will be presented to determine the real acoustic wave distribution in the flow field. Visualization of research results, which is unavailable by conventional acoustics metrology, may be shown in the form of intensity streamlines in space, as a shape of floating acoustic wave and intensity isosurface in three-dimensional space. In traditional acoustic metrology, the analysis of acoustic fields concerns only the distribution of pressure levels (scalar variable), however in a real acoustic field both the scalar (acoustic pressure) and vector (the acoustic particle velocity) effects are closely related. Only when the acoustic field is described by both the potential and kinetic energies, we may understand the mechanisms of propagation, diffraction and scattering of acoustic waves on obstacles, as a form of energy image. This attribute of intensity method can also validate the results of CFD/CAA numerical modeling which is very important in any industry acoustic investigations.
The paper presents experimental results of the visualization of the nonlinear aeroacoustic sound generation phenomena occurring in organ flue pipe. The phase-locked particle image velocimetry technique is applied to visualize the mixed velocity field in the transparent organ flue pipe model made from Plexiglas. Presented measurements were done using synchronization to the tone generated by the pipe itself sup- plied by controlled air flow with seeding particles. The time series of raw velocity field distribution images show nonlinear sound generation mechanisms: the large amplitude of deflection of the mean flue jet and vortex shedding in the region of pipe mouth. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) was then applied to the experimental data to separately visualize the mean mass flow, pulsating jet mass flow with vortices and also sound waves near the generation region as well as inside and outside of the pipe. The resulting POD spatial and temporal modes were used to approximate the acoustic velocity field behaviour at the pipe fundamental frequency. The temporal modes shapes are in a good agreement with the microphone pressure signal shape registered from a distance. Obtained decomposed spatial modes give interesting insight into sound generating region of the organ pipe and the transition area towards the pure acoustic field inside the resonance pipe. They can give qualitative and quantitative data to verify existing sound generation models used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA).
Noise propagation within ducts is of practical concern in many areas of industrial processes where a fluid has to be transported in piping systems. The paper presents experimental data and visualization of flow in the vicinity of an abrupt change in cross-section of a circular duct and on obstacles inside where the acoustic wave generates nonlinear separated flow and vortex fields. For noise produced by flow wave of low Mach number, laminar and turbulent flows are studied us- ing experimental sound intensity (SI) and laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique adopted to acoustics (A-PIV). The emphasis is put on the development and application of these methods for better understanding of noise generation inside the acoustic ducts with different cross-sections. The intensity distribution inside duct is produced by the action of the sum of modal pressures on the sum of modal particle velocities. However, acoustic field is extremely complicated because pressures in non-propagating (cut-off) modes cooperate with particle velocities in propagating modes, and vice versa. The discrete frequency sound is strongly influenced by the transmission of higher order modes in the duct. By under- standing the mechanism of energy in the sound channels and pipes we can find the best solution to noise abatement technology. In the paper, numerous methods of visualization illustrate the vortex flow as an acoustic velocity or sound intensity stream which can be presented graphically. Diffraction and scattering phenomena occurring inside and around the open-end of the acoustic duct are shown.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) originating from agrochemical industries have become an urgent environmental problem worldwide. Ordinary kriging, as an optimal geostatistical interpolation technique, has been proved to be sufficiently robust for estimating values with finite sampled data in most of the cases. In this study, ordinary kriging interpolation integrate with 3D visualization methods is applied to characterize the monochlorobenzene contaminated soil for an agrochemical industrial site located in Jiangsu province. Based on 944 soil samples collected by Geoprobe 540MT and monitored by SGS environmental monitoring services, 3D visualization in terms of the spatial distribution of pollutants in potentially contaminated soil, the extent and severity of the pollution levels in different layers, high concentration levels and isolines of monochlorobenzene concentrations in this area are provided. From the obtained results, more information taking into account the spatial heterogeneity of soil area will be helpful for decision makers to develop and implement the soil remediation strategy in the future.
Scientific output analysis in Poland takes place in many ways: by use both central and local databases. The article discusses the contents and bibliometric functions of the most important bibliographic databases, i.e. “People of science”, Polish Scientific Bibliography and employeers local registration system Expertus. The authors evaluate these tools from the perspective of the ability to make comparisons of the effectivity of individual researchers as well as to stimulate the development of scientific careers. As alternative solution relative to the analytical spectrum of all external tools, the authors present own application that allows visualization of scientific achievements. According authors’ observation, the Scientific Visualiser can enrich the individual information space of the contemporary scientist. Dedicated application certainly facilitates the evaluation of the publication activity, increases an awareness of updating of the bibliographic data, helps in discovering the relationship between the research fields, inspires to broaden intelectual horizons and cooperation networks. From another side, it can also be a tool supporting administration activities, such as: employees evaluation, promotion proceedings, accreditation, experts selection, distribution of funds.
This study is a research reconnaissance into the visual imagery in the poetry of Jan Kochanowski, Poland’s most talented poet before the Romantic Age. Although he was familiar with the technique of ekphrasis and took an interest in emblems, he seems to have been rather sparing in making use of visual potential of the poetic word. However, he does rely on the sense of sight in his epistemological refl ection concerning the problem of knowing God, aesthetics (the experience of beauty) and ethics (the visible order of the world as a guide to proper conduct). The eye also plays a major role in his descriptions of the human psychology, especially love. The sight has a special function in his Treny (Laments), a cycle of elegies written after the death of his baby daughter Urszula in 1579. While addressing the fundamental questions of life and death, Kochanowski draws on visual and aural imagery to convey the devastating pain felt by the father after the death of his beloved child and to question his earlier confi dence in man’s sovereign mind.
Nowadays, the energy cost is very high and this problem is carried out to seek techniques for improvement of the aerothermal and thermal (heat flow) systems performances in different technical applications. The transient and steady-state techniques with liquid crystals for the surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient or Nusselt number distribution measurements have been developed. The flow pattern produced by transverse vortex generators (ribs) and other fluid obstacles (e.g. turbine blades) was visualized using liquid crystals (Liquid Crystal Thermography) in combination with the true-colour image processing as well as planar beam of double-impulse laser tailored by a cylindrical lens and oil particles (particle image velocimetry or laser anemometry). Experiments using both research tools were performed at Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Present work provides selected results obtained during this research.
Classification techniques have been widely used in different remote sensing applications and correct classification of mixed pixels is a tedious task. Traditional approaches adopt various statistical parameters, however does not facilitate effective visualisation. Data mining tools are proving very helpful in the classification process. We propose a visual mining based frame work for accuracy assessment of classification techniques using open source tools such as WEKA and PREFUSE. These tools in integration can provide an efficient approach for getting information about improvements in the classification accuracy and helps in refining training data set. We have illustrated framework for investigating the effects of various resampling methods on classification accuracy and found that bilinear (BL) is best suited for preserving radiometric characteristics. We have also investigated the optimal number of folds required for effective analysis of LISS-IV images.
In recent years, many scientific and industrial centres in the world developed virtual reality systems or laboratories. At present, among the most advanced virtual reality systems are CAVE-type (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) installations. Such systems usually consist of four, five, or six projection screens arranged in the form of a closed or hemi-closed space. The basic task of such systems is to ensure the effect of user “immersion” in the surrounding environment. The effect of user “immersion” into virtual reality in such systems is largely dependent on optical properties of the system, especially on quality of projection of three-dimensional images. In this paper, techniques of projection of three-dimensional (3D) images in CAVE-type virtual reality systems are analysed. The requirements of these techniques for such virtual reality systems are outlined. Based on the results of measurements performed in a unique CAVE-type virtual reality laboratory equipped with two different 3D projection techniques, named Immersive 3D Visualization Lab (I3DVL), that was recently opened at the Gdańsk University of Technology, the stereoscopic parameters and colour gamut of Infitec and Active Stereo stereoscopic projection techniques are examined and discussed. The obtained results enable to estimate the projection system quality for application in CAVE-type virtual reality installations.