This preliminary study characterizes the bronze metalworking on a defensive settlement of the Lusatian culture in former Kamieniec (Chełmno land, Poland) as it is reflected through casting workshop recovered during recent excavations. Among ready products, the ones giving evidence of local metallurgy (e.g. casting moulds and main runners) were also identified. With the shrinkage cavities and dendritic microstructures revealed, the artifacts prove the implementing a casting method by the Lusatian culture metalworkers. The elemental composition indicates application of two main types of bronzes: Cu-Sn and Cu-Pb. Aside these main alloying additions, some natural impurities such as silver, arsenic, antimony and nickel were found which may be attributed to the origin of the ore and casting technology. The collection from Kamieniec was described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive Xray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint either local or non-local profile of the alloys, the ED-XRF data-set was statistically evaluated using a factor analysis (FA).
This study characterizes the bronze jewellery recovered from the Lusatian culture urn-field in Mała Kępa (Chełmno land, Poland). Among many common ornaments (e.g. necklaces, rings, pins) the ones giving evidence of a steppe-styled inspiration (nail earrings) were also identified. With the dendritic microstructures revealed, the nail earrings prove the implementing of a lost-wax casting method, whereas some of the castings were further subjected to metalworking. The elemental composition indicates the application of two main types of bronze alloys: Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Pb. It has been established that the Lusatian metalworkers were familiar with re-melting the scrap bronze and made themselves capable of roasting the sulphide-rich ores. The collection from Mała Kępa has been described in terms of its structure and composition. The investigations were made by means of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X - ray analysis system (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). In order to fingerprint an alloy profile of the castings with a special emphasis on the nail earrings, the data-set (ED-XRF, EDS) was statistically evaluated using multidimensional analyses (FA, DA).
Product quality tests require accurate and precise analytical techniques. Fertilizers belong to a group of products whose chemical composition is of great importance due to health, environmental and economic reasons. The following paper presents the results of the research into the content of selected substances in several mineral fertilizers manufactured in Poland. Ion chromatography (IC) was employed to determine selected inorganic anions and cations, whereas energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) was used to determine the content of selected elements.
Objective: The goal of this contribution is to present and familiarize the medical community with the method for the assessment of trace and essentials elements in prostate tissue sections. Materials and methods: X-ray fl uorescence based technique (namely Synchrotron Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE)) is described in terms of methodology, sample preparation and the evaluation of the recorded results (spectral data sets). Materials for the samples were collected from the patients underwent radical prostatectomy due to Adenocarcinoma prostatae. Specimens were freeze-dried, cut by microtome (to the thickness of 15 μm), one slice was placed on Mylar foil (for SRIXE measurements) and adjacent one on microscopic glass (for histopathological assessment). Results: Results presented here show the usability of SRIXE method for the evaluation of concentration of trace and essential elements in prostate tissue sections with the spatial resolution better than 15 microns. Discussion: Histopathological analysis of samples, which is only focused on morphological features, is unable to reveal information about changes in biochemical signature of tissues aff ected by the illness. SRIXE is a powerful and promising technique to analyse even very low concentrations of selected elements at the cellular level without any labelling or separating procedures. Obtained results may be correlated with classic histopathological assessment allowing for drawing conclusions on the changes in certain elements concentrations with the progression of disease. Moreover, mentioned in this work analysis, can be performed for any type of biological tissues.
Concentrations and elemental composition of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) ambient particles, at two sampling points located at the same urban background sites, were investigated. The points were 20 m distant from each other and at various heights (2 and 6 m) above the ground. A dichotomous sampler, equipped with a virtual impactor, and a cascade impactor were used to sample the dust. An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used in the elemental analyses. The investigations revealed heterogeneity of the spatial distribution and the elemental composition of suspended dust at the investigated urban background site. Coarse dust, whose concentration at 2.0 m above the ground was affected by secondary emission from roads, soil and other local low-level sources in some periods, appeared more heterogeneous.