Identification of agriculture types in Poland with analysis of spatial associations. The aims of the paper were to identify and characterize contemporary agriculture types in Poland, and evaluate the suitability of the typology used. The analysis was performed on the basis of territorial units (communes, LAU2). The study involved a total of 68 variables characterizing agriculture. Spatial associations found in the data were identified. As the next step, an analysis of local spatial autocorrelation was performed and spatial clusters were identified by LISA and cluster analysis performed by the method of k-means clustering, which identified a total of five agriculture types. The study presented the spatial distribution of individual types of agriculture and their characteristics. Furthermore, the method was shown to be especially useful for investigating agricultural phenomena characterized by a large number of traits in relation to a large number of territorial units.
Social and Economic Costs of Spatial Disorder in Agriculture. The main objective of the study was the identification of the phenomena of chaos in the structure and spatial organization of agriculture, that is the agrarian fragmentation of farms, exclusion of land from agricultural production in suburban zones and the fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. These processes cause a major increase in economic and social costs, which results in the loss of resources and spatial disorder in agriculture. An attempt was made to estimate the costs of these processes in economic, social and environmental terms. The economic dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is manifested by negative results in the production and consumption sphere related most often to high labour costs, and consequently to low incomes. The social dimension of spatial disorder in agriculture is demonstrated by the effects of de-agrarization processes and deformation of social structures. De-agrarization means the processes of agricultural area reduction, extensification and fallowing as well as an increasingly limited significance of agriculture as a workplace and a reduction in the source of income by rural residents. A conducted analysis of spatial disorder in agriculture resulting from the lack of appropriate regulation and taxation systems as well as historical factors allowed determining direct and indirect results influencing the structure and spatial organization of agriculture. Direct results include: a chessboard pattern of agricultural land, marginalization of the agricultural function in rural areas which mostly applies to suburban zones, unregulated ownership of farmland, its unjustified designation for other purposes, a decrease in biodiversity in agriculture and fragmentation of the agricultural landscape. Indirect results include: an increase in the costs of agricultural production, expensive agricultural-installation plans, loss of direct payments, easement appurtenant, the emergence of human-environment conflicts and major transformations of the agricultural landscape in a suburban zone.