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Number of results: 6
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Abstract

The amount and composition of lipids m some Antarctic animals were studied. The material consisted of crustaceans (Euphausia superba, Paramoera sp., Orchomene sp.), tunicates (Salpa thompsoni) and vertebrates (Notothenia rossi marmorata and Hydrurga leptonyx). The author's data are discussed on the background of available literature information.
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Abstract

In this paper an attempt will be made to analyse a number of surnames either directly derived from animal names or variously associated with representatives of the animal world which may be said to embody and provide a variation on the general conceptual metaphor HUMAN BEING IS ANIMAL and/or the ANIMAL NAME FOR PERSON ASSOCIATED WITH THAT NAME metonymy. Animal-related surnames represent a fragment of the English lexicon where morphology and (broadly understood) semantics meet and exert mutual infl uence on each other. It seems that in animal-based nomination language users employ such morphological mechanisms as, for example, affi xation or compounding which, in turn, seem to be conceptually motivated by metaphor and metonymy.
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Abstract

Enterococcus hirae belongs in the Enterococcus faecium group within the genus Enterococcus. This species occurs naturally in the environment, commensally in the alimentary tracts of animals, and pathologically for example in humans with urinary infections. Some strains of E. hirae possess virulence factors, including biofilm formation. Biofilm growth protects bacteria against host de- fences; biofilm can be a source of persistent infection. Testing bacterial strains for their ability to form biofilm might therefore facilitate their treatment or prevention. This study focuses on bio- film formation by E. hirae strains derived from various animals. This kind of testing has never been done before. A total of 64 identified E. hirae from laying hens, ducks, pheasants, ostriches, rabbits, horses and a goat were tested by means of three methods; using Congo red agar, the tube method and microtiter plate agar. The majority of strains were found to form biofilm. 62.5% of strains were biofilm-forming, four categorized as highly positive (OD570 ≥1); most strains were low-grade biofilm positive (0.1 ≤ OD 570 < 1). Related to poultry, 55 E. hirae strains were tested nd found to produce biofilm; 24 strains did not form biofilm, 31 strains were biofilm-forming; 27 strains showed low-grade biofilm formation, and four strains were highly biofilm-forming. Four strains from hens and ostriches reached the highest OD570 values, more than 0.500. Rabbit-derived E. hirae strains as well as strains isolated from horses and the goat were low-grade bio- film-forming. Microtiter plate assay proved to be the best tool for testing the in vitro biofilm for- mation capacity of E. hirae strains from different species of animals.
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Abstract

This paper addresses the issue of antibacterial drugs, estrogens and cytostatic drugs’ presence in surface waters and their influence on animals. The ecotoxicity and the impact of three active compounds: ciprofloxacin, 17α-ethinylestradiol and 5-fluorouracil on protozoa, crustaceans and fish were examined. Acute tests (crustaceans’ immobilization test, fish survival test, enzymatic test on Daphnia magna) and chronic tests (growth test on protozoa, reproduction test on crustaceans and juvenile growth test on two species of fish) were performed. Acute toxicity studies revealed diversified species - sensitivity to the tested compounds. Crustaceans Artemia salina were the most resistant to all three pharmaceuticals. Fish also demonstrated low sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and 5-fluorouracil (LC(EC)50-96h > 100 mg/l). In the survival tests, the greatest harm in respect to fish and crustaceans was demonstrated by 17α-ethinylestradiol, and in the enzymatic tests - by ciprofloxacin. In all chronic tests, the toxic effects of drugs were proven. Tested compounds limited reproduction of crustaceans and growth of protozoa and fry. The risk assessment, conducted on the basis of the PEC/PNEC quotient, showed a significant risk in relation to aquatic animals caused by the presence of 17α-ethinylestradiol and 5-fluorouracil in concentrations detected in surface waters.
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Abstract

The presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in blood induces an inflammatory response which leads to multiple organ dysfunction and numerous metabolic disorders. Uncontrolled, improper or late intervention may lead to tissue hypoxia, anaerobic glycolysis and a disturbance in the acid -base balance. The effects of LPS-induced toxemia on biological and immunological markers were well studied. However, parameters such as base excess, ions, and acid-base balance were not fully investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine these blood parameters collectively in LPS-induced inflammatory toxemia in rat’s model. After induction of toxemia by injecting LPS at a rate of 5 mg/kg body weight intravenously, blood was collected from the tail vein of twenty rats and immediately analyzed. After 24 hours, the animals were sacrificed and the blood was collected from the caudal vena cava. The results revealed that the levels of pH, bicarbonate, partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation, Alveolar oxygen, hemoglobin, hematocrit, magnesium (Mg2+), and calcium (Ca2+) were significantly decreased. On the other side, the levels of Base excess blood, Base excess extracellular fluid, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, lactate, Ca2+/Mg2+, potassium, and chloride were significantly increased compared to those found pre toxemia induction. However, sodium level showed no significant change. In conclusion, Acute LPS-toxemia model disturbs acid-base balance, blood gases, and ions. These parameters can be used to monitor human and animal toxemic inflammatory response induced by bacterial LPS conditions to assist in the management of the diagnosed cases.
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Abstract

The article tackles issues of the pedagogy of place, with a special emphasis on the urban context. On the basis of fundamental theses asserting that a city is a text (Vladimir Toporov) and that places are pedagogical (Maria Mendel) – the author concentrates on symbols. Definition of this concept, as well as de3 nitions of its particular exemplifications, create a theoretical basis for further practical considerations. Presenting methodology of a research project Reading the City (Czytanie miasta) conducted in the years 2015–2016, the author creates new research challenges for pedagogues. Presentation of wide variety of city symbolism, encompassing both cultural manifestations (towers, bridges) and a realm of nature (mountains, river), leads to proposed educational applications. Descriptions of realized animations based on research form a summary of this article.
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