A system for precise angular laser beam deflection by using a plane mirror is presented. The mirror was fixed to two supports attached to its edges. This article details the theoretical basis of how this deflector works. The spring deflection of a flat circular metal plate under a uniform axial buckling was used and the mechanical stress was generated by a piezoelectric layer. The characteristics of the deformation of the plate versus the voltage control of the piezoelectrics were examined and the value of the change resolution possible to obtain was estimated. An experimental system is presented and an experiment performed to examine this system. As a result, a resolution of displacement of 10-8 rad and a range of 10-5 rad were obtained.
In this study, free and forced vibration responses of carbon nanotube reinforced uniform and tapered composite beams are investigated. The governing differential equations of motion of a carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced uniform and tapered composite beams are presented in finite element formulation. The validity of the developed formulation is demonstrated by comparing the natural frequencies evaluated using present FEM with those of available in literature. Various parametric studies are also performed to investigate the effect of aspect ratio, percentage of CNT content, ply orientation, and boundary conditions on natural frequencies and mode shapes of a CNT reinforced composite beam. It was observed that the addition of carbon nanotube in fiber reinforced polymer composite (FRP) beam enhances the stiffness of the structure which consequently increases the natural frequencies and alters the mode shapes.
Image-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technique is dynamically developing technology for treating solid tumors due to its non-invasive nature. Before a HIFU ablation system is ready for use, the exposure parameters of the HIFU beam capable of destroying the treated tissue without damaging the surrounding tissues should be selected to ensure the safety of therapy. The purpose of this work was to select the threshold acoustic power as well as the step and rate of movement of the HIFU beam, generated by a transducer intended to be used in the HIFU ablation system being developed, by using an array of thermocouples and numerical simulations. For experiments a bowl-shaped 64-mm, 1.05 MHz HIFU transducer with a 62.6 mm focal length (f-number 0.98) generated pulsed waves propagating in two-layer media: water/ex vivo pork loin tissue (50 mm/40 mm) was used. To determine a threshold power of the HIFU beam capable of creating the necrotic lesion in a small volume within the tested tissue during less than 3 s each tissue sample was sonicated by multiple parallel HIFU beams of different acoustic power focused at a depth of 12.6 mm below the tissue surface. Location of the maximum heating as well as the relaxation time of the tested tissue were determined from temperature variations recorded during and after sonication by five thermo-couples placed along the acoustic axis of each HIFU beam as well as from numerical simulations. The obtained results enabled to assess the location of each necrotic lesion as well as to determine the step and rate of the HIFU beam movement. The location and extent of the necrotic lesions created was verified using ultrasound images of tissue after sonication and visual inspection after cutting the samples. The threshold acoustic power of the HIFU beam capable of creating the local necrotic lesion in the tested tissue within 3 s without damaging of surrounding tissues was found to be 24 W, and the pause between sonications was found to be more than 40 s.
In this paper an alternative procedure to vibro-acoustics study of beam-type structures is presented. With this procedure, it is possible to determine the resonant modes, the bending wave propagation velocity through the study of the radiated acoustic field and their temporal evolution in the frequency range selected. As regards the purely experimental aspect, it is worth noting that the exciter device is an actuator similar to is the one employed in distributed modes loudspeakers; the test signal used is a pseudo random sequence, in particular, an MLS (Maximum Length Sequence), facilitates post processing. The study case was applied to two beam-type structures made of a sandstone material called Bateig. The experimental results of the modal response and the bending propagation velocity are compared with well-established analytical solution: Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko models, and numerical models: Finite Element Method – FEM, showing a good agreement.
This paper presents two methods for evaluation of the effective wavenumber of nearly-Gaussian beams in laser interferometers that can be used for determination of a so called diffraction correction in absolute gravimeters. The first method, that can be simply used in situ, is an empirical procedure based on the evaluation of the variability of g measurements against the amount of light limited by an iris diaphragm and transmitted to a photodetector. However, precision of this method depends on the beam quality similarly as in the case of the conventional method based on measurement of a beam width. The second method, that is more complex, is based on beam profiling in various distances and on calculation of the effective wavenumber using the second spatial derivative of a non-ideal beam field envelope. The measurement results achieved by both methods are presented on an example of two absolute gravimeters and the determined diffraction corrections are compared with the results obtained by measurements of beam width. Agreement of methods within about 1 mGal have been obtained with average diffraction corrections slightly exceeding +2 mGal for three FG5(X) gravimeter configurations.
By the method of modern physical material science (optic microscopy scanning and transmission electron microscopy) the analysis of structural phase states, the morphology of the second phase inclusions and defect substructure of Al-Si alloy (silumin) of hypoeutectic composition, subjected to electron beam processing was done with the following parameters: energy density 25-35 J/cm2, beam length 150 μs, pulse number – 3, pulse repetition rate – 0.3 Hz, pressure of residual gas (argon) 0.02 Pa. The surface irradiation results in the melting of the surface layer, the dissolution of boundary inclusions, the stricture formation of high speed cellular crystallization of submicron sizes, the repeated precipitation of the second phase nanodimentional particles. With the increased distance from the irradiation surface the layer containing the second phase inclusions of quasi-equilibrium shape along with the crystallization cells was revealed. It is indicative of the processes of Al-Si alloy structure globalization on electron beam processing.
Two fundamental challenges in investigation of nonlinear behavior of cantilever beam are the reliability of developed theory in facing with the reality and selecting the proper assumptions for solving the theory-provided equation. In this study, one of the most applicable theory and assumption for analyzing the nonlinear behavior of the cantilever beam is examined analytically and experimentally. The theory is concerned with the slender inextensible cantilever beam with large deformation nonlinearity, and the assumption is using the first-mode discretization in dealing with the partial differential equation provided by the theory. In the analytical study, firstly the equation of motion is derived based on the theory of large deformable inextensible beam. Then, the partial differential equation of motion is discretized using the Galerkin method via the assumption of the first mode. An exact solution to the obtained nonlinear ordinary differential equation is developed, because the available semi analytical and approximated methods, due to their limitations, are not always sufficiently reliable. Finally, an experiment set-up is developed to measure the nonlinear frequency of oscillations of an aluminum beam within a domain of initial displacement. The results show that the proposed analytical method has excellent convergence with experimental data.
The results of bearing capacity, deformability and fracture toughness of reinforced concrete beams with the external reinforcement in the form of steel cut and stretchy sheet, obtained due to the conducting of the experiment and mathematical simulation which were made of concrete of C40/50 class are given in the article. Mathematical simulation of beam structures is done on the basis of the deformation model which allows to conduct calculations of the unified methodological positions of different elements with diverse configuration of cross section and reinforcement as well as take into consideration elastic and plastic properties of concrete and reinforcement, assessing the actual stress-strain state of sections of reinforced concrete elements at different loading levels, including ultimate one. The deformation model is based on the actual diagrams use of concrete and reinforcement materials deformation and conditions of efforts balance in the normal section and hypothesis of flat sections. The theoretical value of bearing capacity and deformability, obtained as a result of the mathematical simulation was compared to the experimental data. The satisfactory coincidence of the mathematical calculation of bearing capacity, deformability, fracture toughness and experimental data gives an opportunity to use the algorithm not only for beam structures with bar reinforcement but also for beam structures with the external reinforcement in the form of steel cut and stretchy sheet.
This paper presents experimental observation of nonlinear vibrations in the response of a flexible cantilever beam to transverse harmonic base excitations around its flexural mode frequencies. In the experimental setup, instead of manual control of the signal excitation frequency and amplitude, a closed-loop vibration system is used to keep the excitation amplitude constant during the frequency sweep and to increase confidence in the experimental results. The experimental results show the presence of the third mode in the response when varying the excitation frequency around the fourth mode. The frequency-response curves, response spectrum and Poincaré plots were used for characterization of nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the beam.
Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetic system that promotes outcrossing by rejecting self-pollen. In the Brassicaceae the SI response is mediated by the pistil S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its ligand, pollen Slocus cysteine-rich (SCR) protein. Transfer of SRK-SCR gene pairs to self-fertile Arabidopsis thaliana enabled establishment of robust SI, making this transgenic self-incompatible A. thaliana an excellent platform for SI analysis. Here we report isolation of a novel A. thaliana self-incompatibility mutant, AtC24 SI mutant, induced by heavy-ion beam irradiation. We show that the AtC24 SI mutant exhibits breakdown of SI, with pollen hydration, pollen tube growth and seed set resembling the corresponding processes in wild-type (self-fertile) A. thaliana. Further reciprocal crosses indicated that some perturbed SI factor in the stigmatic cell of the AtC24 SI mutant is responsible for the observed phenotype, while the pollen response remained intact. Our results demonstrate successful application of heavy-ion beam irradiation to induce a novel A. thaliana self-incompatibility mutant useful for SI studies.
An active beam-pointing stabilization system has been developed for a high-power KrF laser system to eliminate the long-term drift of the directional change of the beam in order to have a stable focusing to a high intensity. The control of the beam direction was achieved by a motor-driven mirror activated by an electric signal obtained by monitoring the position of the focus of the output beam. Instead of large sized UV-sensitive position sensitive detectors a simple arrangement with scatter plates and photodiodes are used to measure the directionality of the beam. After the beam stabilization the long-term residual deviation of the laser shots is ~14 μrad, which is comparable to the shot-to-shot variation of the beam (~12 μrad). This deviation is small enough to keep the focal spot size in a micrometer range when tightly focusing the beam using off-axis parabolic mirrors.
In this paper, thermally-excited, lateral free vibration analysis of a small-sized Euler-Bernoulli beam is studied based on the nonlocal theory. Nonlocal effect is exerted into analysis utilizing differential constitutive model of Eringen. This model is suitable for design of sensors and actuators in dimensions of micron and submicron. Sudden temperature rise conducted through the thickness direction of the beam causes thermal stresses and makes thermo-mechanical properties to vary. This temperature field is supposed to be constant in the lateral direction. Temperatures of the top and bottom surfaces of the system are considered to be equal to each other. Governing equation of motion is derived using Hamilton’s principle. Numerical analysis of the system is performed by Galerkin’s approach. For verification of the present results, comparison between the obtained results and those of benchmark is reported. Numerical results demonstrate that dynamic behavior of small-sized system is been effected by temperature shift, nonlocal parameter, and slenderness ratio. As a result, taking the mentioned parameters into account leads to better and more reliable design in miniaturized-based industries.
Complex structures used in various engineering applications are made up of simple structural members like beams, plates and shells. The fundamental frequency is absolutely essential in determining the response of these structural elements subjected to the dynamic loads. However, for short beams, one has to consider the effect of shear deformation and rotary inertia in order to evaluate their fundamental linear frequencies. In this paper, the authors developed a Coupled Displacement Field method where the number of undetermined coefficients 2n existing in the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method are reduced to n, which significantly simplifies the procedure to obtain the analytical solution. This is accomplished by using a coupling equation derived from the static equilibrium of the shear flexible structural element. In this paper, the free vibration behaviour in terms of slenderness ratio and foundation parameters have been derived for the most practically used shear flexible uniform Timoshenko Hinged-Hinged, Clamped-Clamped beams resting on Pasternak foundation. The findings obtained by the present Coupled Displacement Field Method are compared with the existing literature wherever possible and the agreement is good.
The double barrier separate confinement heterostructure (DBSCH) design aimed at reduction of vertical beam divergence and increase of catastrophic optical damage (COD) level for high power laser diodes (LDs) operation is presented. Insertion of thin, wide-gap barrier layers at the interfaces between waveguide and cladding layers of SCH gives an additional degree of freedom in design making possible more precise shaping of the optical field distribution in the laser cavity. By comparison with the large optical cavity (LOC) heterostructure design it has been shown that the low beam divergence emission of DBSCH LDs can be attributed to the soft-profiled field distribution inside the cavity. This soft mode profile seems to determine narrow laser beam emission rather than the field distribution width itself. The potential problem with the soft-profiled but relatively narrow (at half-maximum) mode distribution is a lower COD level. Widening of the mode profile by the heterostructure design corrections can increase it, but care must be taken to avoid excessive decrease of confinement factor (Γ). As a result it is shown that DBSCH design is possible, where the low beam divergence and high COD level is achieved simultaneously. Wide stripe gain-guided LDs based on GaAsP/AlGaAs DBSCH SQW structures have been manufactured according to the design above. Gaussian-shaped narrow directional characteristics are in relatively good agreement with modelling predictions. Vertical beam divergences are 1315o and 1718o FWHM for design versions experimentally investigated. Threshold current densities of the order of 350270 Acm-2 and slope efficiencies of 0.95 and 1.15 W/A have been recorded for these two versions, respectively. Optical power at the level of 1 W has been achieved. The version with lower beam divergence proves to be more durable. Higher optical power levels are to be obtained after heterostructure doping optimisation.
This paper proposes a method for adjusting light waves propagating in systems composed of photonic fibers, light sources and detection elements. The paper presents the properties of these connections in terms of the loss of signal transmission. Different fiber core areas were analyzed, and measurements of the mode-field diameters (MFDs) of selected fiber structures are presented. The study analyzed two types of LMA (Large Mode Area) fiber structures, and the mode-field diameters of these structures were measured on the basis of the radiation distribution obtained under near-field conditions. The results are compared to the values obtained for a SMF-28 single-mode fiber. The LMA structures analyzed in the paper are characterized by low sensitivity of the MFD parameter to the length of transmitted waves, which creates the possibility of their use as intermediate fibers when connecting optical fibers of different diameters. In the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1600 nm, a 3.5% MFD change was observed for the first investigated LMA structure, and a 1% change was observed for the second. In addition, measurements of the mode-field diameters were also made using the transverse offset method for comparison of the results.
In this paper, nonlinear free vibration analysis of micro-beams resting on the viscoelastic foundation is investigated by the use of the modified couple stress theory, which is able to capture the size effects for structures in micron and sub-micron scales. To this aim, the gov-erning equation of motion and the boundary conditions are derived using the Euler–Bernoulli beam and the Hamilton’s principle. The Galerkin method is employed to solve the governing nonlinear differential equation and obtain the frequency-amplitude algebraic equation. Final-ly, the effects of different parameters, such as the mode number, aspect ratio of length to height, the normalized length scale parameter and foundation parameters on the natural fre-quency-amplitude curves of doubly simply supported beams are studied.
This paper presents maps of spatial distributions of the short circuit current Isc(x,y) and the open circuit voltage Uoc(x,y) of the investigated low cost solar cells. Visible differences in values of these parameters were explained by differences in the serial and shunt resistances determined for different points of solar cells from measurements of I–V characteristics. The spectral dependence of the photo voltage of solar cell is also shown, discussed and interpreted in the model of amorphous and crystal silicon.