Recent studies in the area of biological air treatment in filters have addressed fundamental key issues, such as a biofilter bed of different origin composed of natural zeolite granules, foam cubes and wood chips. When foam and zeolite are mixed with wood chips to remove volatile organic compounds from the air, not only biological but also adsorption air purification methods are accomplished. The use of complex purification technologies helps to improve the efficiency of a filter as well as the bed service life of the filter bed. Investigations revealed that microorganisms prevailing in biological purification, can also reproduce themselves in biofilter beds of inorganic and synthetic origin composed of natural zeolite and foam. By cultivating associations of spontaneous microorganisms in the filter bed the dependencies of the purification efficiency of filter on the origin, concentration and filtration time of injected pollutants were determined. The highest purification efficiency was obtained when air polluted with acetone vapour was supplied to the equipment at 0.1 m/s of superficial gas velocity. When cleaning air from volatile organic compounds (acetone, toluene and butanol), under the initial pollutant concentration of ~100 mg/m3, the filter efficiency reached 95 %.
The aim of the study was to determine the impact of various methods of oil mixing with wastewater on properties of synthetic municipal wastewater containing edible oil (SMW+0.02% m/v rapeseed oil). The study was carried out in 3L glass, cylindrical reactors to which SMW+0.02% were introduced. Various methods of its mixing with water were applied: mechanical mixing (SMW+0.02%+mixing) and sonication (SMW+0.02%+ultrasounds). The wastewater was sonicated at 35 kHz for 30 min. The constant temperature conditions were maintained during the experiment for each mixing method (15°C, 20°C and 30°C). The analysis of parameters (pH, COD, BOD5 and long chain free fatty acids concentration) of raw wastewater and after 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours of inoculation was performed to determine the effect of mixing method. The most signifi cant changes in wastewater chemical parameters after the introduction of the oil were observed in the case of COD. For SMW+0.02%+ mixing a slow increase in COD within 24 hours of the process was observed. In the case of SMW+0.02%+ultrasounds the increase and the decrease of COD value were observed in reference to the initial value. The changes in acids concentrations observed in reactors with SMW+0.02%+ultrasounds were referred to the ones observed in reactors with SMW+0.02%+mixing but changes were more intense in the fi rst reactor. The use of ultrasounds in pre-treatment of wastewater resulted in the intense appearance of palmitic acid for 6 hours. Regardless of the emulsion formation method (mixing or ultrasounds), the concentration of oleic acid and linoleic acid was reduced. The biggest changes in free fatty acids concentration were observed for palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids after 24 hours.
Diclofenac (2-[(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)amino]benzeneacetic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-infl ammatory drug. Due to excessive use of diclofenac, this drug has been detected in surface water, ground water and drinking water. In our study, four fungal strain Trametes trogii, Aspergillus niger, Yarrowia lipolytica and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated in terms of diclofenac degradation potential. Trametes trogii was found to be the most effi cient strain with 100% diclofenac degradation rate. Two hydroxylated diclofenac metabolites have been identifi ed in culture medium. Crude laccase from T. trogii almost completely removed diclofenac with 97% removal in 48 h. We suggest that the degradation of diclofenac depends on the cytochrome P450 enzyme system and laccase activity. After 24 h incubation decrease in toxicity of diclofenac was confi rmed by Microtox test.
Bioremediation is based on microorganisms able to use pollutants either as a source of carbon or in co-metabolism, and is a promising strategy in cleaning the environment. Using soil contaminated with petroleum products from an industrial area in Saudi Arabia (Jubail), and after enrichment with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) naphthalene, a Methylobacterium radiotolerans strain (N7A0) was isolated that can grow in the presence of naphthalene as the sole source of carbon. M. radiotolerans is known to be resistant to gamma radiation, and this is the first documented report of a strain of this bacterium using a PAH as the sole source of carbon. The commonly reported Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain N7B1) that biodegrades naphthalene was also identified, and gas chromatography analyses have shown that the biodegradation of naphthalene by M. radiotolerans and P. aeruginosa did follow both the salicylate and phthalate pathways.
Biological regeneration of water and organic sorbents used in the absorption of hydrophilic and hydrophobic pollutants, respectively, was studied. In both cases biodegradation takes place in a membrane bioreactor. In the case of organic sorbents regeneration of the biodegradation process is integrated with the extraction of a given pollutant to water phase. In experiments carried out in this work, the proposed systems were tested using a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. For hydrophilic compounds experiments were performed using alcohols (1-butanol and 2-propanol) as model substrates. Applying the mathematical model of a membrane bioreactor elaborated previously, the values of pollutant concentration were determined and positively verified in the experiments. This system of water sorbent regeneration is fully satisfying. The process of biodegradation integrated with extraction was analysed on the basis of model compounds such as benzene and toluene. The study confirmed a possibility of organic sorbent (silicone oil) regeneration. However, due to a very high partition coefficient of benzene or toluene between the organic and aqueous phases, the process could be considered only for the case of their high concentrations in the gas directed to absorption.
High intake of over-the-counter, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, has resulted in their presence in wastewaters and surface waters. The potentially harmful effect of ibuprofen present in the waters has led to a search for new methods of drugs’ removal from the environment. One of the most important technological and economical solutions comprises microbiological degradation of these resistant pollutants. Searching for new strains able to degrade ibuprofen could be one of the answers for increasing the detection of pharmaceuticals in the waters. In this study, the ability of bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) to remove ibuprofen is described. Bacteria were cultured in both monosubstrate and cometabolic systems with 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 mg L-1 ibuprofen and 1 g L-1 glucose as a carbon source. Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) removed ibuprofen up to 9 mg L-1 in 232 hours in the monosubstrate culture, whereas in the cometabolic culture the removal of the drug was over 6 times faster. That is why the examined strain could be used to enhance the bioremediation of ibuprofen.
Studies were conducted using a 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax (Columbus, OH, USA) respirometer to determine the effect of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and combination of them on enhancing intrinsic biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons in soil. Contaminated soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. Bioaugmentation was realized by addition of indigenous or exogenous bacteria to soil. Biostimulation was done by aerated water supply and surfactant addition. Bioaugmentation + addition of a surfactant was applied as the combined treatment. The intrinsic and enhanced hydrocarbons biodegradation rates were estimated from the slopes of linear regressions of cumulative curves of O2 uptake. Pertinent biodegradation rates were recalculated on the basis of the stoichiometric reaction (mass balance equation) and conversion equation. The results showed that combined treatment (indigenous bacteria bioaugmentation + addition of a surfactant) was the most effective method of biodegradation enhancement as the 20-fold increase of biodegradation rate was observed.
Compounds present in oil sludge such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic. Microorganisms including bacteria and fungi have been reported to degrade oil sludge components to innocuous compounds such as carbon dioxide, water and salts. In the present study, we isolated different bacteria with PAH-degrading capabilities from compost prepared from oil sludge and animal manures. These bacteria were isolated on a mineral base medium and mineral salt agar plates. A total of 31 morphologically distinct isolates were carefully selected from 5 different compost treatments for identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 16S rRNA gene with specific primers (universal forward 16S-P1 PCR and reverse 16S-P2 PCR). The amplicons were sequenced and sequences were compared with the known nucleotides from the GenBank. The phylogenetic analyses of the isolates showed that they belong to 3 different clades; Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. These bacteria identified were closely related to the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Variovorax, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia and Geobacillus. The results showed that Bacillus species were predominant in all composts. Based on the results of the degradation of the PAHs in the composts and results of previous studies on bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons in oil, the characteristics of these bacterial isolates suggests that they may be responsible for the breakdown of PAHs of different molecular weights in the composts. Thus, they may be potentially useful for bioremediation of oil sludge during compost bioremediation.
In the present study, the enrichment and isolation of textile effluent decolorizing bacteria were carried out in wheat bran (WB) medium. The isolated bacterium Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 was then tested for decolorization of textile effluent in consortium with a dyestuff degrading fungus Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM 1146. Decolorization study suggests that A. ochraceus NCIM 1146 and P. rettgeri strain HSL1 alone re moves only 6 and 32% of textile effluent American Dye Manufacturing Institute respectively in 30 h at 30 ±0.2°C of microaerophilic incubation, while the fungal-bacterial consortium does 92% ADMI removal within the same time period. The fungal-bacterial consortium exhibited enhanced decolorization rate due to the induction in activities of catalytic enzymes laccase (196%), lignin peroxidase (77%), azoreductase (80%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (84%). The HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of textile effluent into various metabolites. Detoxification studies of textile effluent before and after treatment with fungal-bacterial consortium revealed reduced toxicity of degradation metabolites. The efficient degradation and detoxification by fungal-bacterial consortium pre-grown in agricultural based medium thus suggest a promising approach in designing low-cost treatment technologies for textile effluent.
In the present study, treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol, resorcinol and catechol was studied in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and filling time have been optimized to increase the phenol, resorcinol, catechol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies. More than 99% phenol, 95% resorcinol and 96% catechol and 89% COD removal efficiency was obtained at optimum conditions of HRT = 1.25 d and fill time = 1.5 h. The heating value of the sludge was found to be 12 MJ/kg. The sludge can be combusted to recover its energy value.
Since ﬂuoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are extensively used both in human and veterinary medicine their accumulation in the environment is causing increasing concern. The aim of the study was to isolate a microbial consortium resistant to oﬂ oxacin and norﬂ oxacin and able to biodegrade both antibiotics. Green compost was used as a source of microorganisms. The biodegradation efﬁ ciency was monitored by changes of antibiotics concentrations and toxicity. The microbial consortium was composed of two bacterial isolates: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K2) and Achromobacter sp. (K3) and two fungi Candida manassasensis (K1) and Trichosporon asahii (K4). All the isolates were characterized as highly resistant to both antibiotics – oﬂ oxacin and norﬂ oxacin. FQs were supplied individually into the culture medium in the presence of an easily degradable carbon source – glucose. Biodegradation of norﬂ oxacin was much faster than oﬂ oxacin biodegradation. During 20 days of the experiment, the norﬂ oxacin level decreased by more than 80%. Oﬂ oxacin was generally biodegraded thereafter at relatively slow biodegradation rate. After 28 days the oﬂ oxacin level decreased by 60%. Similarly, the toxicity of biodegraded antibiotics decreased 4-fold and 3.5-fold for norﬂ oxacin and oﬂ oxacin, respectively. The ability of the bacterial-fungal consortium to degrade antibiotics and reduce toxicity could help to reduce environmental pollution with these pharmaceutical.
This study applied a modified OxiTop® system to determine the oxygen uptake rate during a 2-day respiration test of selected composting materials at different moisture contents, air-filled porosities and composition of composting mixtures. The modification of the OxiTop® respirometer included replacement and adjustment of a glass vessel (i.e. a 1.9-L glass vessel with wide mouth was used instead of a standard 1-L glass bottle, additionally the twist-off vessel lid was adjusted to attach the measuring head) and application of a closed steel mesh cylinder of 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in height with the open surface area of the mesh of approximately 56.2%. This modification allowed obtaining different bulk densities (and thus air-porosities) of the investigated composting materials in laboratory composting studies. The test was performed for apple pomace and composting mixtures of apple pomace with wood chips at ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5 (d.w), moisture contents of 60%, 65% and 75% and air-filled porosities ranging from 46% to 1%. Due to diverse biodegradability of the investigated apple pomace and composting mixtures this test allows for the determination of the effects of different air-porosities (due to compaction in a pile) on the oxygen uptake rate for mixtures with a fixed ratio of a bulking agent. The described method allows for laboratory determination of the effects of moisture content and compaction on biodegradation dynamics during composting.
The current study was aimed to evaluate the industrial efﬂ uents biodegradation potential of an indigenous microorganism which reduced water pollution caused by these efﬂ uents. In the present study biodegradation of three textile industrial efﬂ uents was performed with locally isolated brown rot fungi named Coniophora puteana IEBL-1. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed under Box Bhenken Design (BBD) for the optimization of physical and nutritional parameters for maximum biodegradation. Quality of treated efﬂ uents was checked by study of BOD, COD and analysis through HPLC. Three ligninolytic enzymes named lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase were also studied during the biodegradation process. The results showed that there was more than 85% biodegradation achieved for all three efﬂ uents with decrease in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) below the recommended values for industrial efﬂ uent i.e. 80 mg/L for BOD and 220 mg/L for COD after optimization of nutritional parameters in the second stage. Analysis of samples through HPLC revealed the formation of less toxic diphenylamine, 3-methyldiphenylamine and N-methylaniline after treatment. The ligninolytic enzymes assays conﬁ rmed the role of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase in biodegradation process. Lignin peroxidase with higher activity has more contribution in biodegradation of efﬂ uents under study. It can be concluded through the results that Coniophora buteana IEBL-1 is a potential fungus for the treatment of industrial efﬂuents.
This paper presents a general overview of 2D mathematical models for both the inorganic and the organic contaminants moving in an aquifer, taking into consideration the most important processes that occur in the ground. These processes affect, to a different extent, the concentration reduction values for the contaminants moving in a groundwater. In this analysis, the following processes have been taken into consideration: reversible physical non-linear adsorption, chemical and biological reactions (as biodegradation/biological denitrification) and radioactive decay (for moving radionuclides). Based on these 2D contaminant transport models it has been possible to calculate numerically the dimensionless concentration values with and without all the chosen processes in relation to both the chosen natural site (piezometers) and the chosen contaminants.In this paper, it has also been possible to compare all the numerically calculated concentration values to the measured concentration ones (in the chosen earlier piezometers) in relation to both the new unpublished measurement series of May 1982 and the new set of parameters used in these 2D contaminant transport models (as practical verification of these models).