This work discusses the heat transfer aspects of the neonate’s brain cooling process carried out by the the device to treat hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This kind of hypothermic therapy is undertaken in case of improper blood circulation during delivery which causes insufficient transport of oxygen to the brain and insufficient cooling of the brain by circulating blood. The experimental setup discussed in this manuscript consists of a special water flow meter and two temperature sensors allowing to measure inlet and outlet water temperatures. Collected results of the measurements allowed to determine time histories of the heat transfer rate transferred from brain to the cooling water for three patients. These results are then analysed and compared among themselves.
The complexity of the phenomena associated with the course of the cognitive processes that determine an efficient learning, excludes the possibility of collecting knowledge in other ways than neuronal-information. It excludes also possibilities of interpreting it, in other ways than with use of respectively formalized cognitive models. The presented paper is a kind of summary of the latest achievements in this field.
Introduction: Acute subdural hematoma (aSDH) removal is one of the most commonly performed procedure in neurosurgery. Complications of those surgeries which require reoperation are associated with higher risk of poor treatment outcome. Th erefore we decided to analyse potential factors which might be associated with risk of early reoperation among patients who underwent aSDH surgery. Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed 328 patients treated due to aSDH. From their medical records we obtained detailed medical history. Early reoperation was defi ned as reoperation during the same hospital stay. To determine the potential predictors of early reoperation we used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 20 (6.09%) patients required early reoperation. Th ose patients had signifi cantly higher International Normalized Ratio (INR) upon admission (1.96 ± 2.55 vs. 1.26 ± 0.50; p <0.01) and signifi cantly higher Prothrombin Time (PT) upon admission (21.84 ± 27.10 vs. 13.40 ± 3.45; p <0.01). In multivariate logistic regression analysis aft er adjustment for all possible confounders higher INR (OR: 1.762; 95% CI: 1.017–22.840; p = 0.045) remained independently associated with higher risk of early reoperation among patients with aSDH. Conclusions: Patients with higher INR and PT upon admission are at higher risk of early reoperation. Higher INR is independently associated with higher risk of early reoperation among patients with aSDH.
Dynamic development in children’s research has led to surprising discoveries about the learning and thinking patterns of fetuses, infants and young children. These studies have revolutionized not only our knowledge of children, but also our understanding of the nature of the human mind and brain. Moreover, within this context, it is believed that many areas of adulthood are the result of the experiences and changes that occur during the fetal period and in childhood. These experiences, therefore, are crucial for human development and what people achieve in the following stages of their lives. The results of the research on brain development during the fetal period and during childhood presented here, reveal a new perspective for understanding the essence and nature of the learning process. These studies also strongly suggest that the first two thousand days of a child’s life are critical in developing many basic human skills. Therefore, we must take great care of the quality of environment for a child’s development.
In the last decade of the XX-th century, several academic centers have launched intensive research programs on the brain-computer interface (BCI). The current state of research allows to use certain properties of electromagnetic waves (brain activity) produced by brain neurons, measured using electroencephalographic techniques (EEG recording involves reading from electrodes attached to the scalp - the non-invasive method - or with electrodes implanted directly into the cerebral cortex - the invasive method). A BCI system reads the user's “intentions” by decoding certain features of the EEG signal. Those features are then classified and "translated" (on-line) into commands used to control a computer, prosthesis, wheelchair or other device. In this article, the authors try to show that the BCI is a typical example of a measurement and control unit.
Human brain is “the perfect guessing machine” (James V. Stone (2012) Vision and Brain, Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, p. 155), trying to interpret sensory data in the light of previous biases or beliefs. Bayesian inference is carried out by three complex networks of the human brain: salience network, central executive network, and default mode network. Their function is analysed both in neurotypical person and Attention Deficit Disorder. Modern human being having predictive brain and overloaded mind must develop social identity, whose evolution went probably through three stages: social selection based on punishment, sexual selection based on reputation, and group selection based on identity.