Philosophical concepts have always been closely related to the development of basic sciences. For example, great mathematical theories put forth at the turn of the century, and general theory of relativity were crucial for the advancement of physical sciences and at the same time had a great impact on the formation of a new science philosophy. They also initiated a new era of exploring the Universe, thus opening many issues in the fields of astrophysics and astronomy. In biology, the theory of evolution has greatly impacted the understanding of such fundamental issues as the origin of living species and the occurrence of the phenomenon of life on Earth. Another breakthrough in life sciences was a result of the progress in molecular biology which concerned sequencing genomes and modification of genetic resources of living organisms. These great achievements have led to formation of several new fields of life sciences such as: synthetic biology, systemic biology as well as personalized medicine.
Scientists around the world agree that nowadays, science is facing severe challenges like poor peer-review system, replicability crisis, or locked science behind paywalls. The National Science Center addresses at least some of them by introducing procedures that promote integrity, ethics, social responsibility, transparency, and openness in science.