The paper discusses acoustic problems in the contemporary Catholic church, and presents a study of the influence of the ceiling structure on acoustics in the interior for two types of ceiling structures, i.e. the truss type and the reinforced concrete one. The investigations involved six contemporary churches: three buildings with a truss type ceiling and three buildings with a reinforced concrete ceiling. The results reveal that in churches with a truss type ceiling, acoustic parameters reach values close to recommendations. In contrast, churches with a concrete ceiling create very unfavourable acoustic conditions. The investigations rendered it possible to calculate the sound absorption coefficient α for the truss type cover.
Wola Justowska has long been thought of as the most attractive urban villa district of Krakow. A timber church from the XVI century that had originally been built in Komorowice Śląskie was relocated here in the year 1948, subsequently burning down a fire in 1978 in unknown circumstances. It had been rebuilt soon after, only to be set on fire a second time in 2002. After discussing numerous ideas and locations of its reconstruction, the design team developed a final version of its design, which featured the reconstruction of the church in its original location – in accordance with the will of the residents of Wola – which had been preceded by appropriate landscape analyses. The design calls for the reconstruction of the timber church in a slightly modified manner and placing it upon a concrete plinth, which is to be partially sheltered by the varied terrain around it. The aim of this idea was similar to that of the initial reconstruction, namely, to reconcile the form of the historical building that is to be reconstructed with the modern needs of the parish.
The phenomenon of churching (attendance at churches outside parishes of residence) is associated with socio-economic and cultural transformations of society, including general growth of mobility. In this paper titular issue was described against the background of the concept of the life of a city and according to the concept of place. On the ground of the data gained, the presence of churching in the Old Town area in Poznań and its dimensions were primarily proved. This work is an introduction to an empirical research, concerning spatial behaviour of churching people and possible impact of their decisions on city centre functions.
Although the Russian Orthodox Church participates in the activities of the ecumenical movement, it remains sceptical about the evolution of Western Christianity, mainly Protestantism. In particular, attempts to challenge traditional dogmatic and ethical formulations are unacceptable. The Russian Orthodox criticism goes even further when it reveals the sources of the rejection of church tradition in early Protestant theology. In this context, the article presents the main elements of the contemporary Russian Orthodox critique of the Reformation’s rejection of tradition as an authoritative source of Christian faith. The first part outlines the theological and ideological specificity of the Russian Orthodox discourse on the Reformation. The second part presents the Orthodox concept of the authority of tradition in the Church as a starting point for the criticism of the Reformation. The third part discusses the main elements of the criticism of the reformatory concept of sola Scriptura with particular emphasis on its socio-political reasons and consequences.
A new approach to acoustic quality assessment of churches during simulation tests is proposed in the article. The numerical global index, based on four partial indices: reverberation, speech intelligibility, music sound index and a proposed new one - sound strength index, assesses the acoustic parameters of the model of the tested church in a complex manner. The global single number index was obtained from 17 simulations of acoustic adaptation options of the investigated church's interior. The equation of the approximate global index has been obtained by means of singular vectors, obtained from Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the Index Observation Matrix of Simulation Variants (IOMSV). The weights of four partial indices and a universal equation of the global index have been calculated using the SVD technique to solve the problem of correlated acoustical parameters. The global index may be a helpful tool during simulation tests of acoustic quality assessment of churches. The proposed final equation of the global index does not require knowledge of the SVD technique and the values of acoustic parameters preferred for churches. Therefore the methodology proposed is easily applicable.
The paper outlines the Catholic and the Evangelical standpoint on the primate’s function served by the Bishop of Rome and its origin. The controversy revolves around the key phrase, iure divino and iure humano, which points to the divine or human origin of the primacy. In the Catholic perspective, Jesus Christ brought the Church into existence and provided this institution with permanent structural elements: primacy and apostolate. This thesis, considered an imperative of faith, is based on the texts of the Gospel which underscore the primacy of Saint Peter the Apostle among the Twelve and in the early Church. According to the Catholic ecclesiology, it was not only a private privilege enjoyed by Peter but a permanent element of the structure of the Church, which received the formal status of a dogma at the First Vatican Council. From the outset, the Reformation has assumed that primacy is an element shaped in the course of the historical development of the Church. The ecumenical dialogue between Catholicism and Lutheranism led to the establishment of a standpoint veering towards the consideration of the origin of primacy as a matter of lesser consequence. This step was taken in order to underscore the communal dimension of the Church, with its important function in unifying Christianity and presenting it to the world. The basic premise giving credence to this function is its foundation in the Gospel.
The author in his article deals with the role that Mary of Nazareth, the mother of Messiah, the Gebirah, played in the economy of salvation. The title Gebirah means the dignity of the king’s mother and the special power of her influence. Therefore, the Books of Kings almost always mention the name of the king’s mother by introducing the description of each Judah ruler from the Davidic dynasty from which the Messiah was born. The dignity of Gebirah was given to the king’s mother at the time of her son’s enthronement. The king’s mother received the prestigious title of Gebirah (2 Kings 5:3; Jer 13:18), because she gave birth to her son (geber), who became king (2 Sam 23:1). They mention three texts of the Bible about the mother of the Messiah, depicting an important figure of a mother’s role (Genesis 3:15; Jes 7:14 and Mich 5:2). Both the figure of the king and his mother prefigure the Messianic King Jesus (2 Sam 7:10-17) and his mother Mary. Mary, the Mother of Jesus, considered to be a messianic personification of the entire people of Israel, becomes the new Daughter of Zion. Mary as the messianic Gebirah is actually the Mother of the Church.
This article consists of two parts. The first part summarizes using informal language Wolniewicz’s understanding of the idea of God which he expressed in the language of formal logic. It demonstrates that Wolniewicz’s position was founded on antinaturalism, i.e. the conviction that nature is a fragment of a larger reality while man partly transcends the natural reality. The second part of the article is an attempt at capturing the intuitions behind Wolniewicz’s idea of God as an impersonal power which is not identical with Providence though. It is argued that this view is a consequence of the characteristic traits of Wolniewicz’s personality. This explanation is consistent with Wolniewicz’s understanding of human nature. In the analysis that ensues reference is made to Wolniewicz’s private correspondence.
The article is a topic outline of the theology of the Church’s unity. It shows the spectrum of contemporary reflection on this attribute of the Church mentioned in the Nicene-Con-stantinople Symbol (credo in unam Ecclesiam). The reflection includes biblical categories, especially the idea of koinōnia/communio, emphasizing the Trinitarian basis for unity of the Church, and its concrete means – bonds of unity. Among these means of unity, particular attention is paid to the bond of faith, the sacraments and ecclesiastical governance, nota-bly the universal ministry of Christian unity. Individual Churches (denominations) have different visions of unity, but also these concepts are the subject of ecumenical dialogue. The most recent ecumenical vision on the Church, including its unity, is the document of the World Council of Churches Commission on Faith and Order, Towards a Common Vision of the Church (published in 2013). Christian Churches involved in the contemporary ecumenical dialogue are aware that the unity of the Church is a reality given and set, yet incomplete and imperfect, so to speak “on the way”. In this sense they can express their spero in unam Ecclesiam.
”The 500th anniversary of the Reformation for the Orthodox Church is not a special reason for joy, because that was another division in the Church” – Metropolitan Hilarion (Alfeyev) said. Although it concerned the relationship between Luther and the Western Church, its reference became the Orthodox Church, in which Luther sought primary teaching and ecclesiology. The proof of this was the Leipzig dispute, during which the primacy, liturgy, structure of the Church, the teaching of justification and purgatory, Luther confronted with the teaching of the Orthodox Church. If Luther saw in the Orthodox Church a framework for his reform, why did he not decide to convert to the Eastern Church? Karmires, emphasizing Luther’s great knowledge of the Orthodox Church, claims, however, that it had only a superficial character, lacking empirical knowledge. He also concludes that Luther neither wanted nor accepted Orthodoxy because of his affection to the mentality of the Western Church and to scholastic theology as well.
Religion has two functions: a social one (it consolidates a group of followers) and a personal one (psychological). In modern times, the social function of religion has been taken over by ideologies. Socialism is one of such ideologies. The creators of Marxism called their version of socialism scientific socialism, but their vision of the course of history (‘from capitalism to communism’) has become the foundation of a new religion and a new church. The author calls this church ‘Marxo-Leninism’. The text shows similarities between the Catholic Church and the Marxo-Leninism (or the Stalinist church), as well as the analogies between the Jesuit order and the ‘Len-Party’ (i.e. the Leninisttype party).
Exegesis of Matthew 16:13-20, made in the light of historical and doctrinal terms occurred after 70 years in Judea, in which the evangelist Matthew was presented with its Judeo-Christian Church, indicates clearly existing in the text emphasis and related them to universalist objectives . They primarily guided him to define the saving message of Jesus the Risen of being Christological and Ecclesiological, in the final version edited by himself, in the Gospel of the Kingdom at the turning point for the fate of the Palestinian Church. The scene from Caesarea Philippi is edited in a manner which allows Peter to run his church in the Hellenistic world in order to gain complete doctrinal confidence that the same power of binding and resolving in heaven and on earth which he received from Jesus Simon Barjon to exercise it in the land of Israel, is also possessed by Simon Peter to celebrate it with the same saving efficiency in the lands of the heathen. Without this doctrinal certainty, it would probably be impossible to guarantee its further Judeo-Christian existence in the world of ethnochristians and gentiles.
The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is the term for the highest office in the Church. It consists in carrying out a mission appointed to St. Peter and his successors by Christ. The truth about the primacy is a theoretical plane, dogmatically defined at the I Vatican Council in 1870. It also has a practical dimension, which depends on the individual popes and the particular historical context. A characteristic feature of the pontificate of John Paul II was the implementation of the reforms of the II Vatican Council and the Church’s preparation for the Great Jubilee of the third millennium. John Paul II realized the primacy function in accordance with the tradition of the Church, on the grounds of the biblical image of Peter the Apostle, and continuing the line of his predecessors – John XXIII and Paul VI. The leading element of his pontificate was the openness to the world, to man and his dignity, or sensitivity to the signs of the times. The priority at the level of ecclesial unity was a concern for the community at all levels, including the ecumenical field. John Paul II realized the primacy ministry as Servus servorum Dei, in the ancient formula – priority in love .
One of the essential problems in the relationship between Catholic-Orthodox churches is the difference in the interpretation of the current forms of the primacy in the Church of the Bishop of Rome. Contemporary studies on the essence and on the method of accom-plishing this service on behalf of the universal Church’s unity assumed new dynamics after the publication of the ecumenical encyclical letter of John Paul II – Ut unum sint. The Pope addressed and requested the pastors and theologians to establish with him a “patient and fraternal dialogue” (see US 95-96), for both parties to strive to achieve “the forms in which this ministry may accomplish a service of love recognized by all concerned” (US 95). The contemporary Orthodox theologians, based on the results of historical studies, are con-vinced that the idea of the Roman primacy has been always presented in the theological awareness of the Christian East. The Eastern Churches do not negate the primacy of the Pope, as the Bishop of Rome, and as the first bishop of the whole Church. Recognizing the primacy of the Holy See as an incontestable historical fact, the Orthodox theologians see the crucial problem in the determination of its nature. They do not accept the primacy in the juridical sense.
The article discusses the concentration of Martin Luther’s theology on the Christian existence. There are three main areas pointing to this key idea. Firstly, the description of justification of the people in the categories of freedom gained through the experience of faith, which leads to a thankful service towards one’s neighbour. Secondly, sacramental understanding of the working of God’s Word as a performative that changes the world. It defines not only the understanding of the sacraments, with the key role of Baptism as a foundation for everyday actualisation of Christian life in penance, which strives for fighting off the sinfulness of an old, sinful man, and leads to building the man’s own justice based on the alien justice of Christ, but it is also the basis for the communion of believers – the church, as well as for the orders of creation, which structure the current reality. Thirdly, the remarks on theological knowledge closed in the triad prayer–meditation–temptation and theological weight of the experience of differentiating between the Law and the Gospel.
The author of the dissertation described two unpublished so far hand written musical Oktoihs (Znamenny chant) of the Old Believers from his private collection. Based on those manuscripts the author indicates the important codicological and paleographical features of musical writing of the Theodosian and Pomorian Old Believers. Furthermore, the author presents the structure of the Oktoih book used by the Old Believers and makes overview of the polish literature concerning the discussed issues. The aim of the dissertation is to encourage other collectors of ancient manuscripts to share their collections and elaborations with researchers.
In this article, the imperial idea and civilising missions in the Habsburg Monarchy, mainly of the nineteenth century, are refracted through the prism of the legacy of enlightened absolutism. The article tries to dispel mythologies about its demise around 1800, and about those who could subscribe to its programme throughout the nineteenth century. It questions templates of national history writing which too unanimously connect the Enlightenment to the origins of the various national revivals of the early nineteenth century, and discusses concrete examples of enlightened absolutism’s civilising impulses, among them law, Roman imperial patriotism, and the Catholic religion.
The article compares two models of the Church government, which since Vatican II are often in a certain antagonism in the Catholic Church. The model of „Communio” builds the Universal Church from the local church (i.e. the diocesis); the model of „Iurisdictio” (or „Hierarchy”) starts from the primacy of jurisdiction of the bishop of Rom (and separates „ordo“ and „iurisdictio”) The author proposes (with Walter Kasper) a synthesis of „iuris-dictio” and „ordo” as a theological theme for the third Christian millennium. A special place is given to the discussion of the ecclesiology of Joseph Ratzinger, who demonstrates a development from the significance of the collegiality of the episcopate to the „martyria” of the single bishop in the relation of primacy and collegiality
The chuch dedicated to The Holy Spirit, erected in Wrocław, in housing estate Huby, was created during the communist period, hence it was very difficult to design it, and to build. But it was also the period close to the collapse of this regime, so communist leaders were pressed to be more tolerant towards human rights than before, including the religious freedom and towards building new churches. The author of the church mentioned – a very active political oppositionist – when designing the strongly innovative church building, was simultaneously forced by fate to fight formal difficulties caused by oppressive rulers. Author makes the reader closer to those complicated double troubles: artistic, parallel to the political. Finally, the church building was happily completed, then became widely popular and accepted.
Joseph Ratzinger discusses papal primacy in the Church, which is a communio based on the relationship between primacy and collegiality. Therefore, he supports jurisdictional primacy executed not in a monarchical way, but collegially, with the Pope as the head of the college of bishops. Joseph Ratzinger discusses the Petrine primacy in the New Testament, which he considers a starting point for a discussion about the succession of Peter’s office, choosing (via media) between papalism and conciliarism. He, therefore, focuses on the personal aspect of primacy connected with a given person. Moreover, the article discusses the relationship between the papacy and doctrinal infallibility. It also poses the question whether after his renunciation Benedict XVI still retains the charisma of doctrinal infallibility (or authentic orthodoxy) and how this refers to the current Pope Francis.