The aims of this study were to identify the taxonomic diversity and abundance of psammonic ciliate communities in mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes (Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland, eastern Poland). The effect of selected physical and chemical water parameters on ciliates community was also analysed. Psammon samples were collected during three seasons: spring, summer and autumn of 2010. In each lake, in the psammolittoral, samples were collected in the euarenal, higroarenal, and hydroarenal zones. A total of 53 ciliate taxa were recorded. The highest value of the Shannon-Weaver index was recorded in summer in eutrophic lake (2.79). At the same time in mesotrophic lake, a lower value of the index was determined (0.79). The mean numbers of ciliates ranged from 516 ind.cm-3 in the eutrophic lake to 191 ind. cm-3 in the mesotrophic lake. In eutrophic lake, the highest number of ciliates was recorded in the euarenal (649 ind. cm-3), and the lowest in the higroarenal (425 ind. cm-3). In the mesotrophic lake, the highest average numbers were determined in the higroarenal (235 ind. cm-3), and the lowest in the hydroarenal (155 ind. cm-3). Irrespective of the lake trophy, Hymenostomata (Paramecium sp., Glaucoma sp., Uronema nigricans) occurred in the highest numbers (from 13 to 95%). The results demonstrated that N-NH4, P-PO4 and TOC can strongly regulate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliates. The strongest correlations between numbers of ciliates and physical and chemical water parameters were observed in the higro- and hydroarenal zones of the eutrophic lake.
This paper presents a complex study on ciliates from the different species of mosses of King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic. Samples of ciliates were collected from Polytrichastrum alpinum , Sanionia georgico−uncinata , Sanionia uncinata and Brachythecium austrosalebrosum . The highest species richness (19 taxa) occurred in habitats from Brachythecium austrosalebrosum . The lowest number of taxa (5) was observed in Polytrichastrum alpinum . The greatest abundance of ciliates was found in samples from Brachythecium austrosalebrosum (25–30 ind. g −1 ), while the lowest was found in samples from Polytrichastrum (4–6 ind. g −1 ). In each species of mosses, vertical differentiation of these protozoa assemblages was found. The number of species and abundance significantly increased in the lower samples. The upper samples of mosses were dominated by mixotrophic taxa, whereas samples from the lower part the proportions of bacterivore species increases. The RDA performed to specify the direct relationships between the abundance of ciliate taxa and environmental variables showed obvious differences between habitats studied. However, variables that significantly explained the variance in ciliate communities were: dissolved oxygen, pH, and nutrients.
The primary objective of the present study was to determine the seasonal dynamics of ciliates in activated sludge. Studies were carried out in order to verify the hypothesis that fertility of a habitat may significantly influence the seasonal dynamics of the abundance of ciliates, as well as the number and intensity of correlations between physic-chemical parameters and ciliates. It seems that the values of numbers of ciliates were seasonally changeable. The highest numbers of ciliates were found in spring and summer, however the lowest numbers of ciliate communities were noted in winter. The studies showed that protozoa community is determined by ammonia mainly in summer. In spring and winter additional factors may be important. Probably suspended solid, total organic carbon and concentration of appropriate food (bacteria and flagellates) are the major regulator of abundance of ciliates.
Microzonation of testate amoebae and ciliates in relation to physical and chemical parameters in different species of mosses in peatland were studied. Regardless of the species of mosses, similar micro-vertical differentiation of these protozoa was ascertained. A similar number of species, like the abundance, significantly increased in the deepest sampling depth. The upper-most sampling of the mosses (0–5 cm) was dominated by mixotrophic taxons, whereas the deepest sampling level (5–10 cm) shown the increase of the proportion of bacterivore species. In peatlands the factors limiting the occurrence of ciliates and testate amoebae are physio-chemical suitablilty – mainly the total organic carbon content and water table depth, but with somewhat lower levels of pH and species of mosses.
The prevalence of heavy metals in wastewater is the cause of death of numerous organisms which take part in biological treatment of wastewater, that is why the aim of the study has been to asses the influence of cadmium and copper ions upon the microfauna of activated sludge. 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg/l of Cd2+ and Cu2+ were added into the samples of activated sludge and then, after 24 hours, the microscopic observations of activated sludge microfauna were carried out, and all changes concerning the amount of microfauna, functional groups, and species composition were determined. The results obtained allowed to find a high level of toxicity of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions to activated sludge microfauna, which resulted in the changes in the value of the Sludge Biotic Index and classes of sludge, survivability of microfauna, and reduction in the number of taxonomic units. It was observed that Cu2+ ions are more toxic to activated sludge microfauna than Cd2+ ions in identical doses. Organisms sensitive to Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions have been found to be testate amoebae, Aspidisca sp. and Epistylis sp., as well as organisms relatively sensitive to tested metals, which turned out to be ciliates of Opercularia and Vorticella convalaria genera.