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Abstract

This paper presents a preoperative hip reconstruction method with diagnosed osteoarthritis using Durom Hip Resurfacing System (DHRS). The method is based on selection and application of the resurfacing to the pelvis reconstructed on the basis of computed tomography. Quality and geometrical parameters of distinguished tissues have a fundamental significance for locating and positioning the acetabular and femoral components. The application precedes the measurements of anatomical structures on a complex numerical model. The developed procedure enables functional selection of endo-prosthesis and its positioning in such a way that it secures geometric parameters within the bone bed and the depth , inclination angles and ante-version of the acetabular component, the neck-shaft angle and ante-torsion angle of the neck of the femoral bone, and reconstruction of the biomechanical axis of the limb and the physiological point of rotation in the implanted joint. Proper biomechanics of the bone-joint complex of the lower limb is determined by correlation of anatomical-geometrical parameters of the acetabular component and parameters of the femoral bone.
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Abstract

At the current stage of diagnostics and therapy, it is necessary to perform a geometric evaluation of facial skull bone structures basing upon virtually reconstructed objects or replicated objects with reverse engineering. The objective hereof is an analysis of imaging precision for cranial bone structures basing upon spiral tomography and in relation to the reference model with the use of laser scanning. Evaluated was the precision of skull reconstruction in 3D printing, and it was compared with the real object, topography model and reference model. The performed investigations allowed identifying the CT imaging accuracy for cranial bone structures the development of and 3D models as well as replicating its shape in printed models. The execution of the project permits one to determine the uncertainty of components in the following procedures: CT imaging, development of numerical models and 3D printing of objects, which allows one to determine the complex uncertainty in medical applications.
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Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of the results of ultrasound transmission tomography (UTT) imaging of the internal structure of a breast elastography phantom used for biopsy training, and compares them with the results of CT, MRI and, conventional US imaging; the results of the phantom examination were the basis for the analysis of UTT method resolution. The obtained UTT, CT and MRI images of the CIRS Model 059 breast phantom structure show comparable (in the context of size and location) heterogeneities inside it. The UTT image of distribution of the ultrasound velocity clearly demonstrates continuous changes of density. The UTT image of derivative of attenuation coefficient in relation to frequency is better for visualising sharp edges, and the UTT image of the distribution of attenuation coefficient visualises continuous and stepped changes in an indirect way. The inclusions visualized by CT have sharply delineated edges but are hardly distinguishable from the phantom gel background even with increased image contrast. MRI images of the studied phantom relatively clearly show inclusions in the structure. Ultrasonography images do not show any diversification of the structure of the phantom. The obtained examination results indicate that, if the scanning process is accelerated, ultrasound transmission tomography method can be successfully used to detect and diagnose early breast malignant lesions. Ultrasonic transmission tomography imaging can be applied in medicine for diagnostic examination of women’s breasts and similarly for X-ray computed tomography, while eliminating the need to expose patients to the harmful ionising radiation.
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Abstract

Minimally invasive procedures for the kidney tumour removal require a 3D visualization of topological relations between kidney, cancer, the pelvicalyceal system and the renal vascular tree. In this paper, a novel methodology of the pelvicalyceal system segmentation is presented. It consists of four following steps: ROI designation, automatic threshold calculation for binarization (approximation of the histogram image data with three exponential functions), automatic extraction of the pelvicalyceal system parts and segmentation by the Locally Adaptive Region Growing algorithm. The proposed method was applied successfully on the Computed Tomography database consisting of 48 kidneys both healthy and cancer affected. The quantitative evaluation (comparison to manual segmentation) and visual assessment proved its effectiveness. The Dice Coefficient of Similarity is equal to 0.871 ± 0.060 and the average Hausdorff distance 0.46 ± 0.36 mm. Additionally, to provide a reliable assessment of the proposed method, it was compared with three other methods. The proposed method is robust regardless of the image acquisition mode, spatial resolution and range of image values. The same framework may be applied to further medical applications beyond preoperative planning for partial nephrectomy enabling to visually assess and to measure the pelvicalyceal system by medical doctors.
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Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of factors influencing the accuracy of reproduction of geometry of the vertebrae and the intervertebral disc of the lumbar motion segment for the purpose of designing of an intervertebral disc endoprosthesis. In order to increase the functionality of the new type of endoprostheses by a better adjustment of their structure to the patient’s anatomical features, specialist software was used allowing the processing of the projections of the diagnosed structures. Recommended minimum values of projection features were determined in order to ensure an effective processing of the scanned structures as well as other factors affecting the quality of the reproduction of 3D model geometries. Also, there were generated 3D models of the L4-L5 section. For the final development of geometric models for disc and vertebrae L4 and L5 there has been used smoothing procedure by cubic free curves with the NURBS technique. This allows accurate reproduction of the geometry for the purposes of identification of a spatial shape of the surface of the vertebrae and the vertebral disc and use of the model for designing of a new endoprosthesis, as well as conducting strength tests with the use of finite elements method.
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