During implementation of construction projects, durations of activities are affected by various factors. Because of this, both during the planning phase of the project as well as the construction phase, managers try to estimate, or predict, the length of any delays that may occur. Such estimates allow for the ability to take appropriate action in terms of planning and management during the execution of construction works. This paper presents the use of the non-deterministic concept for describing the uncertainty of estimating works duration. The concept uses the theory of fuzzy sets. The author describes a method for fuzzy estimations of construction works duration based on the fact that uncertain data is an inherent factor in the conditions of construction projects. An example application of the method is presented. The author shows a fuzzy estimation for the duration of an activity, taking into consideration the distorting influence caused by malfunctioning construction equipment and delivery delays of construction materials.
The stability analysis for discrete-time fractional linear systems with delays is presented. The state-space model with a time shift in the difference is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for practical stability and for asymptotic stability have been established. The systems with only one matrix occurring in the state equation at a delayed moment have been also considered. In this case analytical conditions for asymptotic stability have been given. Moreover parametric descriptions of the boundary of practical stability and asymptotic stability regions have been presented.
The aim of this publication is to design a procedure for the synthesis of an IDT (interdigital transducer) with diluted electrodes. The paper deals with the surface acoustic waves (SAW) and the theory of synthesis of the asymmetrical delay line with the interdigital transducer with diluted electrodes. The authors developed a theory, design, and implementation of the proposed design. They also measured signals. The authors analysed acoustoelectronic components with SAW: PLF 13, PLR 40, delay line with PAV 44 PLO. The presented applications have a potential practical use.
The main idea of all Active Queue Management algorithms, is to notify the TCP sender about incoming congestion by dropping packets, to prevent from the buffer overflow, and its negative consequences. However, most AQM algorithms proposed so far, neglect the impact of the high speed and long delay links. As a result, the algorithms’ efficiency, in terms of throughput and/or queue stability, is usually significantly decreased. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First of all, the performance of the well known AQM algorithms in high speed and long delay scenarios is evaluated and compared. Secondly, a new AQM algorithm is proposed, to improve the throughput in the large delay scenarios and to exclude the usage of random number generator.
In the paper a Lyapunov matrices approach to the parametric optimization problem of a time-delay system with two commensurate delays and a PI-controller is presented. The value of integral quadratic performance index is equal to the value of the Lyapunov functional for the initial function of the time-delay system. The Lyapunov functional is determined by means of the Lyapunov matrix. In the paper is presented the example of a scalar system with two delays and a PI controller.
The practical and asymptotic stabilities of delayed fractional discrete-time linear systems described by the model without a time shift in the difference are addressed. The D-decomposition approach is used for stability analysis. New necessary and sufficient stability conditions are established. The conditions in terms of the location of eigenvalues of the system matrix in the complex plane are given.
A simple robust cheap LQG control is considered for discrete-time systems with constant input delay. It is well known that the full loop transfer recovery (LTR) effect measured by error function ∆(z) can only be obtained for minimum-phase (MPH) systems without time-delay. Explicit analytical expressions for ∆(z) versus delay d are derived for both MPH and NMPH (nonminimum-phase) systems. Obviously, introducing delay deteriorates the LTR effect. In this context the ARMAX system as a simple example of noise-correlated system is examined. The robustness of LQG/LTR control is analyzed and compared with state prediction control whose robust stability is formulated via LMI. Also, the robustness with respect to uncertain time-delay is considered including the control systems which are unstable in open-loop. An analysis of LQG/LTR problem for noise-correlated systems, particularly for ARMAX system, is included and the case of proper systems is analyzed. Computer simulations of second-order systems with constant time-delay are given to illustrate the performance and recovery error for considered systems and controllers.
In this paper, we present the methods to detect the channel delay profile and the Doppler spectrum of shallow underwater acoustic channels (SUAC). In our channel sounding methods, a short impulse in form of a sinusoid function is successively sent out from the transmitter to estimated the channel impulse response (CIR). A bandpass filter is applied to eliminate the interference from out-of-band (OOB). A threshould is utilized to obtain the maximum time delay of the CIR. Multipath components of the SUAC are specified by correlating the received signals with the transmitted sounding pulse with its shifted phases from 0 to 2#25;. We show the measured channel parameters, which have been carried out in some lakes in Hanoi. The measured results illustrate that the channel is frequency selective for a narrow band transmission. The Doppler spectrum can be obtained by taking the Fourier transform of the time correlation of the measured channel transfer function. We have shown that, the theoretical maximum Doppler frequency fits well to that one obtained from measurement results.
In recent years, with the rapid development of digital components, digital electronic computers, especially microprocessors, digital controllers have replaced analog controllers on many occasions. The application of digital controller makes the performance analysis of impulsive system more and more important. This paper considers global exponential stability (GES) of impulsive delayed nonlinear hybrid differential systems (IDNHDS).Through the application of the Lyapunov method and the Razumikhin technique, a series of uncomplicated and useful guiding principles have been obtained. The results of a numerical simulation are presented to demonstrate that the method is correct and effective.
Touch-trigger probes for CNC milling machines usually use wireless communication in the radio or IR band. Additionally they enable triggering signal filtering in order to avoid false triggers of the probe. These solutions cause a delay in trigger signal transmission from the probe to the machine tool controller. This delay creates an additional pre-travel component, which is directly proportional to the measurement speed and which is the cause of a previously observed but not explained increase of the pre-travel with the increase of the measurement speed. In the paper, a method of testing the delay time of triggering signal is described, an example of delay time testing results is presented and the previous, unexplained results of other researchers are analysed in terms of signal transmission delay.
The paper deals with the issue of constructing delay lines on the basis of surface acoustic waves and their application to single-mode oscillators. As a result of a theoretical analysis concrete delay lines are proposed. In the contribution, there is presented a theory of designing a symmetrical mismatched and matched delay line for a single-mode oscillator of electrical signals on the basis of which there were designed and fabricated acoustic-electronic components for sensors of non-electrical quantities. From the experimental results it can be stated that all of six designed and fabricated delay lines can be effectively used in the construction of single-mode oscillators.
The paper presents the stability problem of control systems composed of a fractional-order PI controller and a inertial plant of a fractional order with time delay. Simple and efficient computational method for determining stability regions in the controller and plant parameters space is given. Knowledge of these regions permits tuning of the fractional-order PI controller. The method proposed is based on the classical D-partition method.
In the paper the parallel compensator considered in  is applied to control of the plants with delay and compared with Smith predictor. It is noted that Smith predictor removes only the delay, while the parallel compensator also changes the dynamics of the replacement plant; the latter may be in some degree of freedom shaped by the designer. Owing to this the transients of the system with parallel compensator are significantly faster. Accounting implementability, the control saturations are introduced in control algorithms. Additionally it is shown that using parallel compensator we may apply a relay control to the plants with delay and nonminimum phase zeros, which is impossible by using Smith predictor. Several results of simulations are described which confirm these observations.
The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
This paper presents the results of the theoretical and practical analysis of selected features of the function of conditional average value of the absolute value of delayed signal (CAAV). The results obtained with the CAAV method have been compared with the results obtained by method of cross correlation (CCF), which is often used at the measurements of random signal time delay. The paper is divided into five sections. The first is devoted to a short introduction to the subject of the paper. The model of measured stochastic signals is described in Section 2. The fundamentals of time delay estimation using CCF and CAAV are presented in Section 3. The standard deviations of both functions in their extreme points are evaluated and compared. The results of experimental investigations are discussed in Section 4. Computer simulations were used to evaluate the performance of the CAAV and CCF methods. The signal and the noise were Gaussian random variables, produced by a pseudorandom noise generator. The experimental standard deviations of both functions for the chosen signal to noise ratio (SNR) were obtained and compared. All simulation results were averaged for 1000 independent runs. It should be noted that the experimental results were close to the theoretical values. The conclusions and final remarks were included in Section 5. The authors conclude that the CAAV method described in this paper has less standard deviation in the extreme point than CCF and can be applied to time delay measurement of random signals.
The road pollutant emissions, above all in urban context, are correlated to many infrastructural parameters and to traffic intensity and typology. The research work on road junction geometry, carried out in European research centres, has recently allowed to design new road intersection types which are of undoubted interest, especially in terms of traffic functionality and safety, like the fl ower roundabouts (in which right-turn manoeuvres do not confl ict with the circulating flow). The main objective of this paper is to propose a model for the estimation the capacity, delay, levels of service and the pollutant emissions into flower roundabouts. A comparative analysis between conventional roundabout and flower roundabout has been carried out in terms of CO, CO₂, CH₄, NO, PM₂,₅ and PM10 vehicular emissions, evaluated by mean of COPERT Software which is developed as a European tool for the calculation of emissions from the road transport sector.
In the paper, a choice criterion between flower roundabouts and double-lane roundabouts is proposed, focusing on operational benefits that can derive from one scheme over the other, and outlining a general framework for benefit-cost analysis. In order to assess operational benefits of innovative roundabouts over modern roundabouts, a comparative analysis was made. Capacity was estimated using gap-acceptance models. In detail, assuming the dichotomic shifted negative exponential distribution to model headways in circulating streams, the Hagring formula was adjusted to obtain entry capacity estimations at roundabout approaches where entering vehicles face one or two conflicting flows. Based on the control delay, the suitability domains and indifference areas were constructed. Thus, a sensitivity analysis to changes in traffic demand for operational benefits of flower roundabouts over double-lane roundabouts was carried out and discussed. At last, evidence for new installations and conversion of existing roundabouts can be found.
This paper presents an enhanced internal model control (EIMC) scheme for a time-delayed second order unstable process, which is subjected to exogenous disturbance and model variations. Even though the conventional internal model control (IMC) can provide an asymptotic tracking response with desired stability margins, the major limitation of conventional IMC is that it cannot be applied for an unstable system because a small exogenous disturbance can trigger the control signal to grow unbounded. Hence, modify- ing the conventional IMC structure to guarantee the internal stability, we present an EIMC scheme which can offer better trade-off between setpoint tracking and disturbance rejec- tion characteristics. To improve the load disturbance rejection characteristics and attenuate the effect of sensor noise, we solve the selection of controller gains as an H¥ optimization problem. One of the key aspects of the EIMC scheme is that the robustness of the closed loop system can be tuned via a single tuning parameter. The performance of the EIMC scheme is experimentally assessed on a magnetic levitation plant for reference tracking application. Experimental results substantiate that the EIMC scheme can effectively coun- teract the inherent time delay in the model and offer precise tracking, even in the presence of exogenous disturbance. Moreover, by comparing the trajectory tracking performance of EIMC with that of the proportional integral velocity (PIV) controller through cumulative power spectral density (CPSD) of the tracking error, we show that the EIMC can offer better low frequency servo response with minimal vibrations.
This paper presents an innovative method for measuring the time delay of ultrasonic waves. Pulse methods used in the previous studies was characterized by latency. The method of phase correlation, presented in this article is free from this disadvantages. Due to the phase encoding with the use of Walsh functions the presented method allows to obtain better precision than previous methods. The algorithm to measure delay of the reflected wave with the use of microprocessor ARM Cortex M4 linked to a PC has been worked out and tested. This method uses the signal from the ultrasonic probe to precisely determine the time delay, caused by the propagation in medium, possible. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method a part of the measuring system was implemented in LabVIEW. The presented method proved to be effective, as it is shown in presented simulation results.
The paper describes the construction, operation and test results of three most popular interpolators from a viewpoint of time-interval (TI) measurement systems consisting of many tapped-delay lines (TDLs) and registering pulses of a wide-range changeable intensity. The comparison criteria include the maximum intensity of registered time stamps (TSs), the dependency of interpolator characteristic on the registered TSs’ intensity, the need of using either two counters or a mutually-complementing pair counter-register for extending a measurement range, the need of calculating offsets between TDL inputs and the dependency of a resolution increase on the number of used TDL segments. This work also contains conclusions about a range of applications, usefulness and methods of employing each described TI interpolator. The presented experimental results bring new facts that can be used by the designers who implement precise time delays in the field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
The designing process of high resolution time interval measurement systems creates many problems that need to be eliminated. The problems are: the latch error, the nonlinearity conversion, the different duty cycle coefficient of the clock signal, and the clock signal jitter. Factors listed above affect the result of measurement. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) structure also imposes some restrictions, especially when a tapped delay line is constructed. The article describes the high resolution time-to-digital converter, implemented in a FPGA structure, and the types of errors that appear there. The method of minimization and processing of data to reduce the influence of errors on the measurement is also described.
Necessary and sufficient conditions for robust stability of the positive discrete-time interval system with time-delays are established. It is shown that this system is robustly stable if and only if one well de?ned positive discrete-time system with time-delays is asymptotically stable. The considerations are illustrated by numerical example.
The paper presents the equalization problem of non-linear phase response of digital IIR type filters. An improved analytical method of designing a low-order equalizer is presented. The proposed approach is compared with the original method. The genetic algorithm is presented as an iterative method of optimization. The vector and matrix representation of the all-pass equalizer are shown and introduced to the algorithm. The results are compared with the analytical method. In this paper we have also proposed the use of an aging factor and setting the initial population of the genetic algorithm around the solution provided by the analytical methodology