This research presents a method for the simulation of the magneto-mechanical system dynamics taking motion and eddy currents into account. The major contribution of this work leans on the coupling the field-motion problem considering windings as the current forced massive conductors, modelling of the rotor motion composed of two conductive materials and the torque calculation employing the special optimal predictor combined with the modified Maxwell stress tensor method. The 3D model of the device is analysed by the time stepping finite element method. Mechanical motion of the rotor is determined by solving the second order motion equation. Both magnetic and mechanical equations are coupled in the iterative solving process. Presented method is verified by solving the TEAM Workshop Problem 30.
This article deals with the possibility for increasing of the informational value of a response signal using tilt-shift eddy current probe. Numerical simulations based on the FEM method using the OPERA 3D software as well as gained experimental results are presented. The simulated cracks are evaluated at the selected eddy current probe tilts and shifts with respect to conductive plate to obtain additional data needed for its evaluation and localization. Obtained simulation results are compared and discussed with the experimental results.
Precise measurement of rail vehicle velocities is an essential prerequisite for the implementation of modern train control systems and the improvement of transportation capacity and logistics. Novel eddy current sensor systems make it possible to estimate velocity by using cross-correlation techniques, which show a decline in precision in areas of high accelerations. This is due to signal distortions within the correlation interval. We propose to overcome these problems by employing algorithms from the field of dynamic programming. In this paper we evaluate the application of correlation optimized warping, an enhanced version of dynamic time warping algorithms, and compare it with the classical algorithm for estimating rail vehicle velocities in areas of high accelerations and decelerations.
A limited ability to discriminate between different materials is the fundamental problem with all conventional eddy-current-based metal detectors. This paper presents the use, evaluation and classification of nontraditional excitation signals for eddy-current metal detectors to improve their detection and discrimination ability. The presented multi-frequency excitation signals are as follows: a step sweep sine wave, a linear frequency sweep and sin(x)/x signals. All signals are evaluated in the frequency domain. Amplitude and phase spectra and polar graphs of the detector output signal are used for classification and discrimination of the tested objects. Four different classifiers are presented. The classification results obtained with the use of poly-harmonic signals are compared with those obtained with a classical single-tone method. Multifrequency signals provide more detailed information, due to the response function – the frequency characteristic of a detected object, than standard single-tone methods. Based on the measurements and analysis, a metal object can be better distinguished than when using a single-tone method.
The paper presents results of analysis of the influence of rotor construction on the steady-state torque-speed characteristics of a high-speed eddy-current brake. The investigation is carried out using two- and three-dimensional finite element models and measurements. A series of computations is carried out in order to find out the method for performance improvement of the considered system.
The results of the eddy currents losses calculations with using electrodynamics scaling were presented in this paper. Scaling rules were used for obtain the values of the eddy currents losses. For the calculations Finite Element Method was used. Numerical calculations were verified by measurements and a good agreement was obtained.
Harmonic flux penetrating solid conductive material causes eddy currents inside. It seems plausible that its magnitude does not exceed the exciting magnetomotive force (mmf). However, under certain circumstances the opposite occurs. This article deals with a special case in which the eddy current is approximately 13% higher than the exciting mmf. An analytical field solution, a finite element calculation and a measurement proving this phenomenon are presented. A special flux linkage is turned out to be the reason for this phenomenon. Finally, another example with higher pronounced mmfexceeding in a coil is presented.
The aim of this paper is presentation and comparison of calculation methods of the inductance matrix of a 3-column multi-winding autotransformer. Main and leakage autotransformer inductance was obtained using finite elements method. Static calculations were made at the current supply for 2D and 3D models, and mono-harmonic calculations were made at the voltage supply. In the mono-harmonic calculations the eddy current losses were taken into account, this made it possible to study relationship between the autotransformer parameters and the frequency. Calculations were made using Ansys and the authors' own programs in Matlab.
The 15-winding and 3-column autotransformer supplying an 18-pulse rectifier circuit was developed. Presented methods can be used also for the autotransformers of other topologies supplying different kinds of converters. Presented methods make it possible to exactly calculate main and leakage inductances of the multi-winding autotransformer. The presented analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the inductance matrix makes it possible to identify the influence nature of individual modes on the inductance matrix, and to compare the calculation results obtained using the presented methods. Frequency dependence of autotransformer parameters was shown. Also modes of the impedance matrix of the multi-winding autotransformer was investigated, this made it possible to identify the influence nature of individual modes on the inductance matrix. Using presented methods one can exactly calculate main and leakage inductances of the autotransformer. Thanks to this, one can design in optimal way autotransformers for supplying, for example, rectifier circuits, THD coefficients. The results of the measurements and simulations were also shortly presented at the end of the article.
The calculations results of the temperature distribution in a 3-phase transformer with modular amorphous core are presented. They were performed for two frequency values which were higher than the power system one. For the 3D field analyses the Finite Element Method (FEM) was used. The calculated temperature at the points of the core surface has been verified using an infrared camera.
The optimization method using the ON/OFF sensitivity analysis has an advantage hat an epoch-making construction of magnetic circuit may be obtained. Therefore, it is attractive for designers of magnetic devices. We have already developed the ON/OFF method for the optimization of a static magnetic field problem, and the effectiveness is verified by applying it to the optimization of magnetic recording heads. In this paper, the ON/OFF sensitivity method is extended to the optimization of the eddy current problem using the adjoint variable. The newly developed ON/OFF method is applied to the determination of the optimal topology of the yoke of the billet heater for rolling wire rod. As a result, the optimal shape of yoke, which we could not imagine beforehand can be obtained. It is shown that the local heating of the yoke was reduced without decreasing the heating efficiency.
In this paper we present the results of simulations of the Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT) forward problem. Two complementary calculation techniques have been implemented and coupled, namely: the finite element method (applied in commercial software Comsol Multiphysics) and the second, algebraic manipulations on basic relationships of electromagnetism in Matlab. The developed combination saves a lot of time and makes a better use of the available computer resources.
This work deals with the inverse problem associated to 3D crack identification inside a conductive material using eddy current measurements. In order to accelerate the time-consuming direct optimization, the reconstruction is provided by the minimization of a last-square functional of the data-model misfit using space mapping (SM) methodology. This technique enables to shift the optimization burden from a time consuming and accurate model to the less precise but faster coarse surrogate model. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) is used as a fine model while the model based on the volume integral method (VIM) serves as a coarse model. The application of the proposed method to the shape reconstruction allows to shorten the evaluation time that is required to provide the proper parameter estimation of surface defects.
This paper considers a Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) machine prototype with six poles and 36 stator slots including a three phase double-layered distributed winding. Presented modifications of rotor construction are identified in order to achieve the best possible compromise of eddy-current losses and cogging torque characteristics. The permanent magnet (PM) eddy-current loss is relatively low compared with the iron loss; it may cause significant heating of the PMs due to the relatively poor heat dissipation from the rotor and it results in partial irreversible demagnetization. A reduction in both losses is achieved by magnet segmentation mounted on the rotor. Various numbers of magnet segmentation is analysed. The presented work concerns the computation of the no-load iron loss in the stator, rotor yoke and eddy-current loss in the magnets. It is shown that the construction of the rotor with segmented magnets can significantly reduce the PM loss (eddy-current loss). The eddy-current loss in PMs is caused by several machine features; the winding structure and large stator slot openings cause flux den sity variations that induce eddy-currents in the PMs. The effect of these changes on the BLDC motor design is examined in order to improve the machine performance. 3-D finite-element analysis (FEA) is used to investigate the electromagnetic behaviour of the BLDC motor.