The paper presents the characteristics of the attitude that students have towards electric cars and the significance of distinguished attitude elements in creating interest in the purchase of such vehicles. Electric cars are the new type of vehicles that have an electric motor and use the electricity stored in batteries. They are introduced to the market, but for various reasons the volume of sales is not high. So far, it is not sufficiently known how electric vehicles are assessed by Poles. The presented research is an attempt to know what the attitude towards this type of vehicle. The attitude model tested in this research includes three areas: knowledge about them, emotions that they evoke and potential behaviors. The participants were students of Rzeszów University of Technology – a group of young people who are potential consumers of new technologies. The obtained results indicate that electric cars are rather unknown. At the same time, they arouse great interest and their image is very positive. The attitude characteristics towards this type of vehicle is supplemented by perceived limitations: too high of a purchase price, lack of sufficient information about them and unsatisfactory technical parameters, mainly the long time needed to recharge the battery and the insufficiently long distance with one recharge. The interest in the purchase is dependent on positive emotions, and the lack of sufficient information is an obstacle in thinking about buying such a vehicle. Understanding the attitudes of Polish students towards electric cars can be helpful in adapting information about such cars to potential customers, which in turn may affect the level of interest and sales volume.
In this fast-changing environmental condition, the effect of fossil fuel in vehicle is a significant concern. Many sustainable sources are being studied to replace the exhausting fossil fuel in most of the countries. This paper surveys the types of electric vehicle’s energy sources and current scenario of the onroad electric vehicle and its technical challenges. It summarizes the number of state-of-the-art research progresses in bidirectional dcdc converters and its control strategies reported in last two decades. The performance of the various topologies of bidirectional dc-dc converters is also tabulated along with their references. Hence, this work will present a clear view on the development of state-of-the-art topologies in bidirectional dc-dc converters. This review paper will be a guide for the researchers for selecting suitable bidirectional traction dc-dc converters for electric vehicle and it gives the clear picture of this research field.
Electric cars (SE) are currently considered to be one of the best ways to reduce CO2 and other air emissions in the transport sector as well as noise in cities. They can reduce the dependency of road transport on imported oil in a visible way. Nevertheless, the demand for electricity for a large amount of SE in road transport is not insignificant and has an impact on the power system. The article analyzes the potential impact of SE on the demand, supply, structure and costs of electricity generation as well as emissions as a result of introducing 1 million SEs by 2025 on Polish roads, and tripling this number by 2035. The competitive electricity market model ORCED was used for the calculations. The results of the analysis indicate that regardless of the charging strategy, the demand for SEs causes a slight increase in the overall electricity demand in Poland and consequently also a slight increase in power generating costs. Even a large increase in SEs in road transport will result in a rather moderate demand for additional generation capacity, assuming that power companies will have some control over the mode of charging cars. The introduction of SEs will not reduce CO2 emissions compared to conventional cars in 2025, on the contrary will increase them regardless of the loading strategy. In 2035 however, the result depends on the charging scenario and both the increase or decrease of emissions is possible. Electric vehicles will increase SO2 net emissions, but they will contribute to a decrease in the net emissions of particulates and NOx.
The loss of power and voltage can affect distribution networks that have a significant number of distributed power resources and electric vehicles. The present study focuses on a hybrid method to model multi-objective coordination optimisation problems for dis- tributed power generation and charging and discharging of electric vehicles in a distribution system. An improved simulated annealing based particle swarm optimisation (SAPSO) algorithm is employed to solve the proposed multi-objective optimisation problem with two objective functions including the minimal power loss index and minimal voltage deviation index. The proposed method is simulated on IEEE 33-node distribution systems and IEEE-118 nodes large scale distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the technique. The simulation results indicate that the power loss and node voltage deviation are significantly reduced via the coordination optimisation of the power of distributed generations and charging and discharging power of electric vehicles.With the methodology supposed in this paper, thousands of EVs can be accessed to the distribution network in a slow charging mode.
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the effect of electric car performance characteristics on vehicle energy consumption and driving range. The test object was a Nissan Leaf electric vehicle. The characteristic curves of basic and additional resistance to motion (sum of rolling resistance and air resistance and inertia resistance or grade resistance, respectively) were applied to the model characteristic curve of electric motor torque of the tested vehicle. Based on that, the graphs describing the relationships between vehicle energy consumption and vehicle speed were made (for specific values of car acceleration / acclivity grade) as well as the relations between vehicle driving range and its traction properties. It was concluded that the use of performance characteristics significantly increased the vehicle’s energy consumption and decreased the available vehicle’s driving range.
Reliable estimation of longitudinal force and sideslip angle is essential for vehicle stability and active safety control. This paper presents a novel longitudinal force and sideslip angle estimation method for four-wheel independent-drive electric vehicles in which the cascaded multi-Kalman filters are applied. Also, a modified tire model is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability of sideslip angle estimation. In the design of longitudinal force observer, considering that the longitudinal force is the unknown input of the electric driving wheel model, an expanded electric driving wheel model is presented and the longitudinal force is obtained by a strong tracking filter. Based on the longitudinal force observer, taking into consideration uncertain interferences of the vehicle dynamic model, a sideslip angle estimation method is designed using the robust Kalman filter and a novel modified tire model is proposed to correct the original tire model using the estimation results of longitudinal tire forces. Simulations and experiments were carried out, and effectiveness of the proposed estimation method was verified.
Permanent magnet motors are more and more frequently used in various applications. In this group motors with a trapezoidal EMF deserve a special attention. They are characterized by a simple construction, high efficiency and high torque overload. A certain drawback of BLDC motors are difficulties with an operation at a speed above the nominal value. The article presents the results of investigations into the variablestructure electronic commutator designed for the drive of a small electric vehicle equipped with BLDC motors. Such a solution allows extending the standard range of the drive's speed. The considerations contained in the article focus on the possibilities and effects of regeneration mode in the proposed topology of converter. A theoretical analysis has been presented as well as computer simulations carried out by means of Matlab- Simulink, which were then verified at a laboratory. The tests were finished with trias conducted using a small electric vehicle Elipsa.
A study on plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging load and its impacts on distribution transformers loss-of-life, is presented in this paper. The assessment is based on residential PEV battery charging. As the exact forecasting of the charging load is not possible, the method for predicting the electric vehicle (EV) charging load is stochastically formulated. With the help of the stochastic model, the effect of fixed, time of use, and real-time charging rates on the charging load and the resultant impact on transformer derating is investigated. A 38-bus test system is adopted as the test system including industrial harmonic sources. Test results demonstrate that uncontrolled EV charging might causes a noticeable change in the K-factor of the transformer, emerging the need for derating, while applying real-time rates for battery charging loads conquers this problem even in case of harmonic-rich chargers.
The distortion of air gap magnetic field caused by the rotor eccentricity contributes to the electromechanical coupling vibration of the brushless DC (BLDC) permanent magnet in-wheel motor (PMIWM) in electric vehicles (EV). The comfort of the BLDC in-wheel motor drive (IWMD) EV is seriously affected. To deeply investigate the electromechanical coupling vibration of the PMIWM under air gap eccentricity, the PMIWM, tyre and road excitation are analyzed first. The influence of air gap eccentricity on air gap magnetic density is investigated. The coupling law of the air gap and the unbalanced magnetic force (UMF) is studied. The coupling characteristics of eccentricity rate, air gap magnetic density, UMF, phase current and vibration acceleration are verified on the test bench in the laboratory. The mechanism of the electromechanical coupling vibration of the BLDC PMIWM under air gap static eccentricity (SE), dynamic eccentricity (DE) and hybrid eccentricity (HE) is revealed. DE and HE deteriorate the vibration acceleration amplitude, which contributes the electromechanical coupling vibration of the PMIWM. The research results provide a solid foundation for the vibration and noise suppression of the PMIWM in distributed drive EV.
Currently commercialization of electric vehicle (EV) is based to minimize the time of starting and acceleration. To undergo this problem multi-input multi-output fuzzy logic controller (MIMO-FLC) affect on propelled traction system forming MMS process was proposed. This paper introduces a MIMO-FLC applied on speeds of electric vehicle, the electric drive consists of two directing wheels and two rear propulsion wheels equipped with two light weight induction motors. The EV is powered by two motors of 37 kilowatts each one, delivering a 476 Nm total torque. Its high torque (476Nm) is instantly available to ensure responsive acceleration performance in built-up areas. Acceleration and steering are ensured by an electronic differential system which maintains robust control for all cases of vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. Direct torque control based on space vector modulation (DTC-SVM) is proposed to achieve the tow rear driving wheel control. The MIMO-FLC control technique is simulated in MATLAB SIMULINK environment. The simulation results have proved that the MIMO-FLC method decreases the transient oscillations and assure efficiency comportment in all type of road constraints, straight, slope, descent and curved road compared to the single input single output fuzzy controller (SISO-FLC).
This paper presents the concept of an innovative field-controlled axial-flux permanent-magnet (FCAFPM) machine. In order to show the working principle and features of the proposed dual-rotor with surface-mounted PM’s and iron poles, a toroidallywounded slotted single-stator FCAFPM machine is investigated and analyzed in detail, using 3-D FEAnalysis. The control range, back electromotive force (back-EMF), output and cogging torque components have been evaluated.