This paper deals with the modelling of traction linear induction motors (LIMs) for public transportation. The magnetic end effect inherent to these motors causes an asymmetry of their phase impedances. Thus, if the LIM is supplied from the three-phase symmetrical voltage, its phase currents become asymmetric. This effect must be taken into consideration when simulating the LIMs’ performance. Otherwise, when the motor phase currents are assumed to be symmetric in the simulation, the simulation results are in error. This paper investigates the LIM performance, considering the end-effect induced asymmetry of the phase currents, and presents a comparative study of the LIM performance characteristics in both the voltage and the current mode.
In this paper a scaling approach for the solution of 2D FE models of electric machines is proposed. This allows a geometrical and stator and rotor resistance scaling as well as a rewinding of a squirrel cage induction machine enabling an efficient numerical optimization. The 2D FEM solutions of a reference machine are calculated by a model based hybrid numeric induction machine simulation approach. In contrast to already known scaling procedures for synchronous machines the FEM solutions of the induction machine are scaled in the stator-current-rotor-frequency-plane and then transformed to the torque- speed-map. This gives the possibility to use a new time scaling factor that is necessary to keep a constant field distribution. The scaling procedure is validated by the finite element method and used in a numerical optimization process for the sizing of an electric vehicle traction drive considering the gear ratio. The results show that the scaling procedure is very accurate, computational very efficient and suitable for the use in machine design optimization.
A numerical method is developed for estimating the acoustic power of any baffled planar structure, which is vibrating with arbitrary surface velocity profile. It is well known that this parameter may be calculated with good accuracy using near field data, in terms of an impedance matrix, which is generated by the discretization of the vibrating surface into a number of elementary radiators. Thus, the sound pressure field on the structure surface can be determined by a combination of the matrix and the volume velocity vector. Then, the sound power can be estimated through integration of the acoustic intensity over a closed surface. On the other hand, few works exist in which the calculation is done in the far field from near field data by the use of radiation matrices, possibly because the numerical integration becomes complicated and expensive due to large variations of directivity of the source. In this work a different approach is used, based in the so-called Propagating Matrix, which is useful for calculating the sound pressure of an arbitrary number of points into free space, and it can be employed to estimate the sound power by integrating over a finite number of pressure points over a hemispherical surface surrounding the vibrating structure. Through numerical analysis, the advantages/disadvantages of the current method are investigated, when compared with numerical methods based on near field data. A flexible rectangular baffled panel is considered, where the normal velocity profile is previously calculated using a commercial finite element software. However, the method can easily be extended to any arbitrary shape. Good results are obtained in the low frequency range showing high computational performance of the method. Moreover, strategies are proposed to improve the performance of the method in terms of both computational cost and speed.
The rigid finite element method (RFEM) has been used mainly for modelling systems with beam-like links. This paper deals with modelling of a single set of electrodes consisting of an upper beam with electrodes, which are shells with complicated shapes, and an anvil beam. Discretisation of the whole system, both the beams and the electrodes, is carried out by means of the rigid finite element method. The results of calculations concerned with free vibrations of the plates are compared with those obtained from a commercial package of the finite element method (FEM), while forced vibrations of the set of electrodes are compared with those obtained by means of the hybrid finite element method (HFEM) and experimental measurements obtained on a special test stand.
The paper presents a model of a rapping system of an electrostatic precipitator. The rapping system consists of a set of collecting electrodes hanging on a suspension bar and braced together in a brushing bar. The suspension and brushing bars are modeled using the rigid finite element method, while the collecting plates are modeled using the hybrid method. The method combines the rigid finite element method with the classical finite element method. As a result, the mass matrix is diagonal. Some results of numerical simulations concerning free vibrations of the collecting plates and the influence of the number of elements, into which the plate is divided, on the vibrations of the rapping system are presented.
Thermo-chemical treatments are known to increase the fatigue life of industrial parts. Due to the imprecise consideration of residual stresses in predicting the durability of components subjected to cyclic loading and their effect on the fatigue life, the authors developed a numerical model combining the influence of residual stresses with stresses caused by bending. The authors performed the numerical simulation with the use of Finite Element Method to analyse material behaviour during cyclic loading. The residual stress state developed during nitriding was introduced onto cross-section of the numerical specimen. The goal of this work was better understanding of the real conditions of the nitride steel fatigue processes and improving the knowledge about numerical predicting of the fatigue life for parts with residual stresses. The results of simulation were compared with plane bending fatigue tests. The presented method indicates the possibility of increasing the accuracy of the fatigue analysis of elements after surface treatment, increasing its certainty and the ability to perform better optimization of service life.
This paper presents numerical two-dimensional results for fine-grained concrete under quasi-static three-point bending at meso-scale. Concrete was modelled as a random heterogeneous three-phase material. The simulations for notched concrete beams were carried out with the standard finite element method using an isotropic damage constitutive model enhanced by a characteristic length of micro-structure by means of a non-local theory. The effect of the volume fraction, shape, size, statistical distribution and stiffness of aggregate was analysed. Moreover, the effect of the bond thickness, notch size and characteristic length of micro-structure on the material behaviour was numerically investigated. The FE results were compared with own laboratory test results and other meso-scale calculations for three-phase concrete elements.
This paper presents the numerical part of the research program on concrete-filled steel columns. Nonlinear, three dimensional FE analysis of axial compression, was conducted using the finite element program ABAQUS. The numerical results were validated through comparison with experimental data in terms of ultimate loading and deformation modes. Modeling related problems such as the definition of boundary conditions, imperfections, concrete-steel interaction, material representation and others are investigated using a comprehensive parametric study. The developed FE models will be used for an enhanced interpretation of experiments and for the predictive study of cases not included in the experimental testing.
In this paper we propose an original configuration of a compliant mini-gripper for handling chemicals. The compliant mini-gripper is 3D modeled and analyzed with finite element method. To use it in a wider range of containers designed for laboratories we made several variants of fasteners. In order to obtain a functional prototype in a scale appropriate to characterize the system, we determined the material properties of the gripper and developed an experimental stand for characterizing the system with mini-gripper. Finally, we compared the movements of the experimental grip, made according to the movement of the bellows type actuator, determined based on, analytical and numerical results.
The effects of the miniature channel-shaped scratches not detectable by the present inline electromagnetic defect detection system employed for wires’ surface defect detection on the fracture behaviour of the wires for civil engineering applications were investigated numerically. Finite element analysis revealed that both miniature channel-shaped across-the-thickness and across-the-width scratches change the fracture behaviour of the wires in terms of the fracture initiation locations and fracture process sequence. However, miniature across-the-thickness scratches does not affect the fracture shape of the wire while miniature across-the-width scratches changed the wires’ cup and cone fracture to a fracture shape with a predominantly flat fracture. These results provide an understanding of the fracture behaviour of wires with miniature scratches and serve as an alternative or a complimentary tools to experimental or fractographic failure analysis of wires with miniatures scratches which are difficult to carry out in the laboratory due to the sizes of the scratches.
Anisotropic rotor configurations influenced by the presence of a large number of geometrical parameters in a permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance (PMASR) motor pose design challenges in obtaining a robust geometry satisfying the requirements of reduced torque ripple and high torque density. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to perform detailed geometrical sensitivity analysis of a 36 slot/4 pole permanent magnet assisted synchronous reluctance (PMASR) motor using h-indexing and level sensitivity analysis in order to specify a guideline for designers to prioritize the design variables for optimization. Systematic multi-level design optimization for multiple objectives is implemented by an NSGA-II algorithm aided by the finite element analysis tool, hardware prototyping and experimental validation. The optimized designs also exhibit better structural and thermal characteristics.
Airborne acoustic properties of composite structural insulated panels CSIPs composed of fibre-magnesium-cement facesheets and expanded polystyrene core were studied. The sound reduction ratings were measured experimentally in an acoustic test laboratory composed of two reverberation chambers. The numerical finite element (FEM) model of an acoustic laboratory available in ABAQUS was used and verified with experimental results. Steady-state and transient FE analyses were performed. The 2D and 3D modelling FE results were compared. Different panel core modifications were numerically tested in order to improve the airborne sound insulation of CSIPs.
The need to reduce pollutant emissions leads the engineers to design new aeronautic combustors characterized by lean burn at relatively low temperatures. This requirement can easily cause flame instability phenomena and consequent pressure pulsations which may seriously damage combustor’s structure and/or compromise its fatigue life. Hence the need to study the combustor’s structural dynamics and the interaction between elastic, thermal and acoustic phenomena. Finite element method represent a largely used and fairly reliable tool to address these studies; on the other hand, the idealization process may bring to results quite far from the reality whereas too simplifying assumptions are made. Constraints modelling represent a key-issue for all dynamic FE analyses; a wrong simulation of the constraints may indeed compromise entire analyses although running on very accurate and mesh-refined structural models. In this paper, a probabilistic approach to characterize the influence of external constraints on the modal behaviour of an aircraft combustor-rig is presented. The finite element model validation was performed at first by comparing numerical and experimental results for the free-free condition (no constraints). Once the model was validated, the effect of constraints elasticity on natural frequencies was investigated by means of a probabilistic design simulation (PDS); referring to a specific tool developed in the ANSYS®software, a preliminary statistical analysiswas at performed via Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. The results were then correlated with the experimental ones via Response Surface Method (RSM).
Liquid-liquid extraction provides an environmentally friendly process as an alternative to azeotropic distillation, pervaporation and reverse osmosis because these techniques require the use of large amounts of energy, may involve volatile organic compounds, and operation at high pressure. Ionic liquids (ILs) continue to gain wide recognition as potential environmentally friendly solvents due to their unique properties. However due to their current high cost, their use in industry is seriously limited without an efficient methodology for recovery and recycle. In this paper we describe an innovative methodology for a liquid-liquid extraction process based on an electrically induced emulsion of an ionic liquid as the extracting solvent dispersed in an organic mixture. This offers a most efficient exploitation of the solvent. On the other hand we present our own design of a pilot (semi-industrial) scale extractor based on this methodology and which demonstrates effective recovery of the ionic liquid. In order to achieve this goal we used a numerical modelling tool implemented using our own simulation software based on the finite element method. We also used our original previous experience with generating and investigating liquid-liquid electrosprays using phase Doppler anemometry. Finally we present recommendations for contactor geometry and for the preferred operating conditions for the extractor.
Beam-to-column end-plate joints can be classified as rigid (fully restrained), semi-rigid (partiallyrestrained) or pinned, depending on their type, configuration and the connector arrangement. Fullyrestrained joints are needed for rigid frames in which there is assumed that the frame joints havesufficient rigidity to maintain – under the service state – the angles between the intersecting mem-bers, ensuring the full moment transfer. In contrast in semi-continuous frames, partially restrainedjoints are characterized by relative rotations occurring between the intersecting members so thatthe bending moment can only be transferred partially. In recent years, the idea of using partiallyrestrained, unstiffened joints in building structures has gained momentum since this idea appearsto be more practical and economical. Semi-continuous frames can resist actions by the bendingmoment transfer in partially restrained joints, allowing in the same time for a certain degree ofrotation that enhances the overall ductile performance of these structures. One of the effective waysthat affects ductility of end-plate beam-to-column joints is to use thinner end-plates than those usednowadays in practical applications. In the current study, a certain class of steel-concrete compositejoints is examined in which the thickness of end-plates is to be equivalent to approximately 40-60% of the bolt diameter used in all the composite joints investigated in the considered joint class. Thispaper is an extension of the authors’ earlier investigation on numerical modelling of the behaviourof steel frame joints. The aim of current investigations is to develop as simple as possible andyet reliable three-dimensional (3D) FE model of the composite joint behaviour that is capable ofcapturing the important factors controlling the performance of steel-concrete end-plate joints inwhich the end-plate thickness is chosen to be lesser than that used nowadays in conventional jointdetailing. A 3D FE model constructed for composite joints of the considered joint class is reportedin this paper and numerical simulations using the ABAQUS computer code are validated againstexperimental investigations conducted at the Warsaw University of Technology. Comparison betwe-en the nonlinear FE analysis and full scale experimental results of the considered class of compositejoints is presented which conclusively allows for the accuracy assessment of the modelling tech-nique developed. Comparison between the FE results and test data shows a reasonable agreementbetween the numerical FE model developed and physical model of experimentally examined jointspecimens. Finally, practical conclusions for engineering applications are drawn.
Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses (FEA) are performed to simulate the local compression (LC) technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T)) specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI), double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI) and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI). The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T) specimens.
The main idea of this work is to demonstrate an application of the generalized perturbation-based Stochastic Finite Element Method for a determination of the reliability indicators concerning elastic stability for a certain spectrum of the civil engineering structures. The reliability indicator is provided after the Eurocode according to the First Order Reliability Method, and computed using the higher order Taylor expansions with random coefficients. Computational implementation provided by the hybrid usage of the FEM system ROBOT and the computer algebra system MAPLE enables for reliability analysis of the critical forces in the most popular civil engineering structures like simple Euler beam, 2 and 3D single and multi-span steel frames, as well as polyethylene underground cylindrical shell. A contrast of the perturbation-based numerical approach with the Monte-Carlo simulation technique for the entire variability of the input random dispersion included into the Euler problem demonstrates the probabilistic efficiency of the perturbation method proposed.
An automated procedure based on evolutionary computation and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is proposed to synthesize the optimal distribution of nanoparticles (NPs) in multi-site injection for a Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH) therapy. Evolution Strategy and Non dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA) are used as optimization procedures coupled with a Finite Element computation tool.
An ancient forging device in Spain has been studied, namely the forge with a waterwheel and air-blowing tube or hydraulic trompe, found near the village of Santa Eulalia de Oscos (province of Asturias, Spain). Three procedures using ad hoc methods were applied: 3D modelling, finite element analysis (FEA), and computational-fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD results indicated the proper functioning of the trompe, which is a peculiar device based on the Venturi effect to take in air. The maximum air volume flow rate supplied to the forge by the trompe was shown to be 0.091 m3/s, and certain parameters of relevance in the trompe design presented optimal values, i.e. offering maximum air-flow supply. Furthermore, the distribution of stress over the motion-transmission system revealed that the stress was concentrated most intensely in the cogs of the transmission shaft (a kind of camshaft), registering values of up to 7.50 MPa, although this value remained below half of the maximum admissible work stress. Therefore, it was confirmed that the oak wood from which the motion system and the trompe were made functioned properly, as these systems never exceeded the maximum admissible working stress, demonstrating the effectiveness of the materials used in that period.
The classic relationships concerning the harmonic content in the air gap field of three-phase machines are presented in form of series of rotating waves. The same approach is applied to modeling of permanent magnet motors with fractional phase windings. All main reasons of non-sinusoidal shape of flux density distribution, namely, magnets’ shape and their placement, slotting, magnetic saturation and eccentricity are also related to their counterparts in modal-frequency spectrum. The Fourier 2D spectrum of time-stepping finite element solution is confronted with results of measurements, with special attention paid to accuracy of both methods.
Magnetic-geared permanent magnet (MGPM) electrical machine is a new type of machine by incorporating magnetic gear into PM electrical machine, and it may be in operation with low-speed, high-torque and direct-driven. In this paper, three types of MGPM machines are present, and a quantitative comparison among them is performed by finite element analysis (FEA). The magnetic field distribution, stable torque and back EMF are obtained at no-load. The results show that three types of MGPM machine are suitable for different application fields respectively according to their own advantages, such as high torque and back EMF, which form an important foundation for MGPM electrical machine research.
This paper presents the concept of an innovative field-controlled axial-flux permanent-magnet (FCAFPM) machine. In order to show the working principle and features of the proposed dual-rotor with surface-mounted PM’s and iron poles, a toroidallywounded slotted single-stator FCAFPM machine is investigated and analyzed in detail, using 3-D FEAnalysis. The control range, back electromotive force (back-EMF), output and cogging torque components have been evaluated.