The global financial and European debt crises exposed the need for a new approach to fiscal modeling to support decision making analytically. With this purpose, in the following paper we present a macro-fiscal model. By capturing macro-fiscal interlinkages, especially those between fiscal variables and exchange rates, the model enables to analyze various fiscal scenarios with the focus of its impact on debt sustainability and real sector, as well as to conduct forecasting exercises, for small open economies with potentially large share of foreign currency denominated debt in the overall public debt. Finally, the model is applied to Georgian economy to interpret its’ historical data, provide an optimal policy path for future and analyze debt sustainability under several stress scenarios.
The local aspect of aging is often ignored. However, municipalities, in particular cities will be affected by the consequences of population aging, in particular a decrease in tax revenues and an increase of expenditures on public goods demanded by the elderly. In this paper we use a static general equilibrium model to analyse the impact of aging on city’s finances. We show that an increase in the number of pensioners will raise the cost of public goods. However, an increase in the number of working elderly can alleviate the situation.
In this paper we develop an open-economy endogenous growth model to examine the influence of fiscal policy on the economy in the long run. We allow for public deficit and 5 types of taxes. One of the novel features is separate treatment of interest rates on public and private debt, both of which are linear functions of appropriate debt-to-GDP ratios. Two extreme situations are analyzed: a model of “decentralized economy”, where economic agents do not take into account any externalities, and a model of “benevolent social planner”. We derive the rules of optimal fiscal policy that induce economic agents to internalize all externalities. Theoretical results are illustrated with an empirical analysis for Poland. The optimal values of several fiscal policy instruments for Poland are calculated.
This paper aims to investigate the impact of exogenous fiscal policies on the Indonesian main macroeconomic indicators and the implications on different institutions and sectors in the economy using the static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) analysis. Three simulations are conducted in order to analyze the expansion of exogenous public spending. The results revealed that the increase of government expenditure on goods under the adjusted government deficit and balance of payment generates the highest improvement on Indonesian GDP but resulting an increase in government deficit. In contrast, under financing scheme of either lowering subsidy rates across activities or increasing the ad valorem tax rates would result in lower improvement on Indonesian GDP. This is because it directly escalates the cost of production and thus increases the prices of final goods purchased by the households which result in a fall in their real consumption and in turn eventually could lead to a decrease in national income.
This paper investigates the implications of the size of budget deficit in the open economy under perfect mobility of capital. For that purpose we construct a general equilibrium model with consumers maximizing the discounted utility of consumption, and firms maximizing profits. Government sets the size of the deficit relative to GDP and controls the structure of public debt. Using standard methods of optimal control theory we solve the model, i.e. we find explicit formulas for all trajectories and the level of welfare. Finally, we show that the higher the deficit-to-GDP ratio, the lower the welfare of consumers. Similarly, welfare increases with the share of foreign creditors in public debt.
We consider fiscal and monetary policy interactions in a monetary unionunder monetary leadership, when the common central bank is concerned with theaverage fiscal stance of the union. We use a static two-country monetary unionmodel to investigate the policy-mix problem under different regimes of non-cooperation, cooperation, and enforced cooperation among fiscal authorities.We find that fiscal policy is unambiguously countercyclical, a feature that ismore pronounced under fiscal policy cooperation. Monetary policy can be eithercountercyclical or procyclical. A central bank concerned about the aggregatefiscal stance is effective in stabilizing output and central budget, but at theexpense of inflation stabilization.