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## Rozmyte szacowanie czasów trwania robót budowlanych. = Fuzzy estimation of activities duration in construction projects

### Abstract

During implementation of construction projects, durations of activities are affected by various factors. Because of this, both during the planning phase of the project as well as the construction phase, managers try to estimate, or predict, the length of any delays that may occur. Such estimates allow for the ability to take appropriate action in terms of planning and management during the execution of construction works. This paper presents the use of the non-deterministic concept for describing the uncertainty of estimating works duration. The concept uses the theory of fuzzy sets. The author describes a method for fuzzy estimations of construction works duration based on the fact that uncertain data is an inherent factor in the conditions of construction projects. An example application of the method is presented. The author shows a fuzzy estimation for the duration of an activity, taking into consideration the distorting influence caused by malfunctioning construction equipment and delivery delays of construction materials.
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## Simple Prequalification Models

### Abstract

The selection of a contractor is one of the most important among decisions made by the ownerof a construction. The application of the prequalification procedure enables the selection of themost competent tenderers. Various mathematical models are helpful in carrying out prequalificationprocedure. In the paper, some selected mathematical models are briefly characterized and modelbased on the theory of fuzzy sets is offered. The applied model takes into consideration theowner’s various objectives, as well as different evaluation criteria. The results of the sensitivityanalysis of the model are also presented. Part of a computer software applying an earlier presentedprequalification mathematical model is described.
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## Modelowanie kosztów cyklu życia obiektów budowlanych z uwzględnieniem ryzyka. = Life cycle cost modelling of buildings with consideration of the risk

### Abstract

The paper presents an approach to evaluating a building throughout its whole life cycle in relation to its sustainable development. It describes basic tools and techniques of evaluating and analysing the costs in the whole life cycle of the building, such as Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Management, Life Cycle Cost and Social Life Cycle Assessment. The aim of the paper is to propose a model of cost evaluation throughout the building life cycle. The model is based on the fuzzy sets theory which allows the calculations to include the risks associated with the sustainable development, with the management of the investment and with social costs. Costs incurred in the subsequent phases of the building life cycle are analysed and modelled separately by means of a membership function. However, the effect of the analysis is a global cost evaluation for the whole life cycle of the building.
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## Qualitative Description of Metal Ore Deposits Parameters Based on Selected Fuzzy Logic Operators on the Example of a KGHM Polish Copper S.A. Copper-Silver Mine

### Abstract

The basis for a mineral deposit delimitation is a qualitative and quantitative assessment of deposit parameters, qualifying a deposit as an economically valuable object. A conventional approach to the mineral deposit recognition and a deposit detailed parameters qualification in the initial stages of development work in the KGHM were presented in the paper. The goals of such recognition were defined, which through a gradual detailed expansion, resulting from the information inflow, allows for the construction of a more complete decision-making model. The description of the deposit parameters proposed in the article in the context of fuzzy logic, enables a presentation of imprecise statements and data, which may be a complement to a traditional description. Selected non-adjustable and adjustable s-norm and t-norm operators were demonstrated. Operators effects were tested for selected ore quality parameters (copper content and deposit thickness) by constructing adequate membership functions. In a practical application, the use of chosen fuzzy logic operators is proposed for the assessment of the qualitative parameters of copper-silver ore in the exploitation blocks for one of the mines belonging to KGHM Polish Copper S.A. The considerations have been extended by including the possibility of using compensation operators.
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## A Logic Fuzzy Model for Evaluation of the Railway Station’s Practice Capacity in Safety Operating Conditions

### Abstract

The practice capacity of a railway junction depends, in addition to the effective operation’s conditions, by the potential risk factors related to the design plan of the railway station. With the aim of an approach based on the “fuzzy sets” it is possible to determine the numeric value of the practice capacity by the logic – qualitative relations between the features of the railway junction and the potential risk factors. This methodology permits to try out the absolute value of a suitable vector β, (less then the unit) for the utilization of the theoretic capacity in conditions of maximum reliability of the system related to the aspect of safety (technique “fail safe”).
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## Alternative Automatic Vehicle Classification Method

### Abstract

The paper deals with the new method of automatic vehicle classification called ALT (ALTernative). Its characteristic feature is versatility resulting from its open structure, moreover a user can adjust the number of vehicles and their category according to individual requirements. It uses an algorithm for automatic vehicle recognition employing data fusion methods and fuzzy sets. High effectiveness of classification while retaining high selectivity of division was proved by test results. The effectiveness of classification of all vehicles at the level of 95% and goods trucks of 100% is more than satisfactory.
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## Dual hesitant Pythagorean fuzzy Bonferroni mean operators in multi-attribute decision making

### Abstract

The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
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