The paper presents the impact of biodegradable material - polycaprolactone (PCL) on selected properties of moulding sands. A self-hardening moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin, which is widely used in foundry practice, and an environmentally friendly self-hardening moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate where chosen for testing. The purpose of the new additive in the case of synthetic resin moulding sands is to reduce their harmfulness to the environment and to increase their “elasticity” at ambient temperature. In the case of moulding sands with environmentally friendly hydrated sodium silicate binder, the task of the new additive is to increase the elasticity of the tested samples while preserving their ecological character. Studies have shown that the use of 5% PCL in moulding sand increases their flexibility at ambient temperature, both with organic and inorganic binders. The influence of the new additive on the deformation of the moulding sands at elevated temperatures has also been demonstrated.
The necessity of obtaining high quality castings forces both researchers and producers to undertake research in the field of moulding sands. The key is to obtain moulding and core sands which will ensure relevant technological parameters along with high environmental standards. The most important group in this research constitutes of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate. The aim of the article is to propose optimized parameters of hardening process of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate prepared in warm-box technology. This work focuses on mechanical and thermal deformation of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate and inorganic additives prepared in warm-box technology. Tested moulding sands were hardened in the temperature of 140oC for different time periods. Bending strength, thermal deformation and thermal degradation was tested. Chosen parameters were tested immediately after hardening and after 1h of cooling. Conducted research proved that it is possible to eliminate inorganic additives from moulding sands compositions. Moulding sands without additives have good enough strength properties and their economic and ecological character is improved.
The ablation casting technology consists in pouring castings in single-use moulds made from the mixture of sand and watersoluble binder. After pouring the mould with liquid metal, while the casting is still solidifying, the mould destruction (washing out, erosion) takes place using a stream of cooling medium, which in this case is water. The following paper focuses on the selection of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate technologies for moulds devoted to the ablation casting of aluminum alloys. It has been proposed to use different types of moulding sands with a water-soluble binder, which is hydrated sodium silicate. The authors showed that the best kind of moulding sands for moulds for Al alloy casting will be moulding sands hardened with physical factors – through dehydration. The use of microwave hardened moulding sands and moulding sands made in hot-box technology has been proposed. The tests were carried out on moulding sands with different types of modified binder and various inorganic additives. The paper compares viscosity of different binders used in the research and thermal degradation of moulding sands with tested binders. The paper analyzes the influence of hardening time periods on bending strength of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate prepared in hot-box technology. The analysis of literature data and own research have shown that molding sand with hydrated sodium silicate hardened by dehydration is characterized by sufficient strength properties for the ablation foundry of Al alloys.
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using moulds made from the environmentally friendly sands with hydrated sodium silicate in modified ablation casting. The ablation casting technology is primarily intended for castings with diversified wall thickness and complex shapes made in sand moulds. The article presents the effect of binder content and hardening time on the bending strength Rg u of moulding sands with binders based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened by microwave technology. The aim of the research was to develop an optimal sand composition that would provide the strength necessary to make a mould capable of withstanding the modified ablation casting process. At the same time, the sand composition should guarantee the susceptibility of the mould to the destructive action of the ablation medium, which in this case is water. Tests have shown that microwave hardening provides satisfactory moulds’ strength properties even at a low binder content in the sand mixture.