In slowly flaring horns the wave fronts can be considered approximately plane and the input impedance can be calculated with the transmission line method (short cones in series). In a rapidly flaring horn the kinetic energy of transverse flow adds to the local inertance, resulting in an effective increase in length when it is located in a pressure node. For low frequencies corrections are available. These fail at higher frequencies when cross-dimensions become comparable to the wavelength, causing resonances in the cross-direction. To investigate this, the pipe radiating in outer space is modelled with a finite difference method. The outer boundaries must be fully absorbing as the walls of an anechoic chamber. To achieve this, Berenger's perfectly matched layer technique is applied. Results are presented for conical horns, they are compared with earlier published investigations on flanges. The input impedance changes when the largest cross-dimension (outer diameter of flange or diameter of the horn end) becomes comparable to half a wavelength. This effect shifts the position of higher modes in the pipe, influencing the conditions for mode locking, important for ease of playing, dynamic range and sound quality.
The cuboidal room acoustics field is modelled with the Fourier method. A combination of uniform, impedance boundary conditions imposed on walls is assumed, and they are expressed by absorption coefficient values. The absorption coefficient, in the full range of its values in the discrete form, is considered. With above assumptions, the formula for a rough estimation of the cuboidal room acoustics is derived. This approximate formula expresses the mean sound pressure level as a function of the absorption coefficient, frequency, and volume of the room separately. It is derived based on the least-squares approximation theory and it is a novelty in the cuboidal room acoustics. Theoretical considerations are illustrated via numerical calculations performed for the 3D acoustic problem. Quantitative results received with the help of the approximate formula may be a point of reference to the numerical calculations.