There are numerous diff erences between EU Member States, e.g. related to geographic location, language, culture, etc. The main difference can be primarily found in the level of development of individual regions and voivodeships in Europe. Poor regions and voivodeships in the conditions of growing competition lose their distance to the wealthy ones. The European Union, having this in mind, has given a priority in its regional policy to reduce the disparities between regions by providing aid through the socio-economic cohesion policy to neglected provinces. This problem is of a particular importance in the Polish context due to the large diff erences between the voivodeships. Large disproportions are visible especially between voivodeships of Eastern Poland whose potential, especially innovative potential, is among the weakest in Poland and in the EU. The aim of the article is to review the concepts of innovation, to present the innovative potential of particular Polish voivodeships in 2020 and to defi ne innovative potential’s signifi cance in the development. For the calculation of the synthetic index, there was used a non-model method.
Regional-level authorities are increasingly involved in designing their own strategies to support and enhance innovative local dynamics and improve the performance of their regional innovation systems. The aim of the paper is to assess the role of regional authorities’ policy in building innovation capacity of Pomorskie Voivodeship. As research methods, the author used descriptive analysis, analysis of strategic documents and data analysis. The results show that local government authorities of Pomorskie Voivodeship are active in supporting innovativeness of the region. Cluster policy and bottom- up process of defining smart specialisations may be assessed positively. However, a lack of separate governance structures of the regional innovation system, such as planning, organization, motivation and monitoring should be recognized as unfavourable. Finally, it is still necessary to concentrate measures on meeting needs necessary for an effective commercialization of innovative solutions.
Adopting and developing a knowledge-based economy as the current stage of global economic development is an important stimulus to successful innovation. The transition to a knowledge-based economy and achieving economic convergence, especially in the case of emerging economies, requires the appreciation of science and technology coexistence on the one hand, and the development of innovation on the other, as well as the raising of human resource competences and skills for further development. Latin American countries, in search of an effective development strategy after moving away from the Washington Consensus, which set economic priorities through the last decade of the twentieth century, become increasingly aware of the importance of the development of STI policies. They try to identify the most important institutions and the capacities and resources needed to support economic development. Such policy generally includes at least three objectives: to create research and development opportunities in public research institutes and universities; to stimulate the demand of companies for scientific and technological knowledge by establishing close relationships between universities, business and government, and supporting and developing national innovation systems in each country. In this article the author analyzes the policies introduced and attempts to assess their effectiveness.
The purpose of the chapter is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship development path as well as to indicate barriers limiting further development. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. The conclusions may be of interest to both researchers of the path dependency concept, and representatives of institutions involved in formulation and implementation of regional policy.
Metholodogy of Conclusions Evaluation as a Barrier for Getting Finansing of Innovations in SME. The main aim of this article was to identify the barriers arising from the proposals for the definition of innovation adopted for evaluation. The subject of the study was the methodology of evaluation of applications for co-financing under European Union funds, the sub-measure „Industrial research and development by enterprises”. Complicated procedures and the lack of access to reliable information result in the need to use third-party services when preparing applications. In addition, projects that are highly competitive are favored, but are not always the most innovative. Another problem is the approach to the definition of innovation. The so-called the Oslo methodology was last updated in 2005. The methodology adopted is also not adequate to the current situation in the IT service landscape.
A central element in the theory of clustering is the idea that physical clustering of businesses within specialized sectors is a source for regional economic growth. The spatial proximity of companies and institutions within related industries create a specific setting in which learning, knowledge sharing and mutual competition are encouraged. Additionally, active participation within the innovation eco-system of a Science & Technology Park provides actors access to knowledge, facilities and complementary contacts and network structures. Collective ideation helps an organization to improve the positioning within the technological field and economic market, especially within an innovation ecosystem because actors are dependent on each other’s behaviour to be successful in innovation. This research focuses on the question how to design the collective ideation process in particular to foster interactions within the context of a science & technology parks? This research is based on semi-structured interviews, conducted at all development stages (idea, startup, grow and mature) of Dutch science & technology parks with stakeholders from different perspectives, based on the triple-helix structure (government, industry, research). The study describes how multiple stakeholders benefit from collective ideation, what mechanisms and tools are used in practice and also describes prerequisites and limitations of collective ideation.
The region’s development potential is a set of endogenous features that determine the growth of the local economy. It supports the development of knowledge, innovation and eff ective competition on global markets. The publication argues that saturation with potential may not be enough to cause economic growth. The distribution of potential is also important: concentration is its catalyst. The study proposes a method for measuring the concentration of potential. It has also been shown that the size of the regional economy depends on the distribution of potential in the region.
Health psychology was founded as a response to social needs for better understanding and regulation of psychological aspects of biological, mental, and social well-being. Despite initial enthusiasm and optimism in its early days, three decades of development yielded results that are disappointing to many scholars in terms of health psychology practical meaning. Thus, in this paper we review several challenges for health psychology. We believe that health psychology might benefit from revival of aims and values that distinguished the discipline at its onset such as bio-psycho-social perspective that has been narrowed to somatic illness in recent days. Second, more integration is needed in theory and terminology to eliminate overlapping concepts labeled with different names. Furthermore, social practice would benefit from greater responsiveness of health psychologists to new technologies. Finally, health psychology is likely to derive benefits from more general well-established perspectives on diffusion of innovation in social practice. We conclude that health psychology as a practice-related scientific discipline is likely to regain its initial momentum once these problems are solved and novel areas of scientific exploration are identified.
On May 17, 2018, the National Center for Research and Development announced the initiation of a new procedure within the Hydrogen Storage Program. The objective was to develop a Hydrogen Storage System for use with fuel cells and its demonstration in a Mobile Facility. This is to create an alternative to the use of fossil fuels and create a field for competition in creating solutions in the field of access to “clean” energy. The National Center for Research and Development is responsible for the development of assumptions, regulations and implementation. The analysis presents the main assumptions of the program is correlated to the current legal situation related to the financing of Research and Development. An in-depth study concerns the ways of using innovative partnership and its placement in the system of European Union legal acts. The idea of the pre-commercial procurement procedure (Pre-Commercial Procurement), which was developed to support the implementation of prototypes of solutions – resulting from research and development – with a high potential for possible commercialization, was described in details. This procedure is characterized by ensuring the financing of a product or service at an early stage of development. Although this creates the risk of failure of the project, it stimulates technological development.
Wales is one from five selected European regions, which (looking at statistical analysis), develop in an extraordinary way in comparison to others. The purpose of the article is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of Wales’s development path as well as to indicate problems with which the region has still struggle. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. Based on this, conclusions and recommendations for the institutions involved in implementation of regional policy in Polish voivodeships have been formulated.
Architecture created in Poland of 21st C. is somewhere a mode of selfpresentation, in another cases is a method of shouting down the others. It is also aomwhere talking without any thesis, instead with a large dose of a badly understood assertiveness. Whe should to built a clear architectural activity, more objectified, and tied with a contemporaneity. We should begin from the most basic rules, from the certain architectural grammar. The identity can be understood as a set of features, which e.g. let to distinguish architecture growing out in Poland, in contrary to architecture rooted somewhere elsewhere. Those are not always any formal features. In order to understand what a spirit of the place really is, e.g. in ancient Rome there was an idea of the watchman spirit. This spirit gives life to the people and to the places, accompany them since they a born until they are dead. It determines their character or the content.
In the era of transition to a low-carbon economy, optimal use of the developmental resources within urban regions expresses the need to limit suburbanization and increase the energy efficiency. Solutions are sought as an alternative for the suburban housing estates embodying the image high-quality life in the American Dream style. Aspects of the urban innovation, serving the public sector as a tool for improvement of the quality in residential environment, are considered in the article. Selected examples (mainly German) are described with reference to 1) the changes in the standards of housing development, 2) large-scale renewal programs for residential areas, 3) development and dissemination of urban design (the technique). The interaction between scientific research and the implementation sphere, remaining in the hands of local governments, is important here. Synergy, at a local level, is of key importance in at least four aspects in urban development: 1) solving complex, atypical problems, 2) the public sector being a strong (independent) partner, 3) adaptation of foreign concepts, from other planning systems/cultures and morphologically different urban structures, 4) strengthening the position in relations with the EU.
This paper presents the innovative activity of enterprises as a process that is risky but necessary for the survival of a company in a competitive market, and as a way to maximize the long-term value for the owners. Risks and benefits were analysed, and the possible sources of added value in innovative projects were identified in the context of the capital market equilibrium and the budgeting of investments. Innovative projects become a source of added value for investors if the financial effects such as changes in the residual cash flow and higher growth rate outweigh the combined impact on the risk generated by two factors: increase of systematic risk and emerging specific risks.
For a long time creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship have been at the heart of studies on economic growth of regions and cities. In the paper the three notions are scrutinised together to propose conceptual approach to establishing research and development pathways, based upon three-stage identification of: research problems, project patterns and relational mechanisms. The paper is concluded with a 63 Box – the approach helping to navigate throughout project preparation phase.
The study presents a change of innovation model in the highly developed region of the European Union Friuli Venezia Giulia in Italy. The paper presents the innovation system and the outline of the region’s economic history, as well as the factors that preceded the change in innovation model, the direct causes of the change, and the impact of institutional factors as well as the development barriers. The analyzes were based on interviews with 14 representatives of regional and local authorities, innovation and entrepreneurship support institutions, universities, R&D units and a cluster from the region, as well as statistical data and source material.
In 1994-2000 Galicia region was among the weakest regions with a GDP per capita below the median of the European countries, that gained a strong increase in GDP in subsequent years. Thus, the aim of the article is to identify factors which had an impact on the change of Galicia’s development path as well as to indicate barriers limiting further development. The article is based on a desk research, statistical data analysis as well as structured in-depth interviews conducted with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientifi c units and business-related institutions. The findings show that there was no shock that could become a direct cause for a change in the innovation process model of Galicia. The success of the transformation could be seen in attracting automotive and shipbuilding industries decades ago and the creation of a strong knowledge base. The case study of Galicia shows that even with a diffi cult history and only a few pillars of the economy, it is possible to grow faster than other regions in Europe.
This chapter provides a quantitative analysis to identify weak regions that have changed the innovation model. The analysis was carried out at the beginning of the project, in 2015, when only data on GDP per capita for the EU regions was available until 2011. It was designed to identify regions that have changed the innovation model for their in-depth qualitative research, that is to prepare case studies. To indicate the development paths of European regions, a comparative analysis of means was prepared. Innovation models and their change were indicated by clusters analysis. In addition, an econometric analysis of growth factors in the EU regions covering data on GDP per capita in the EU regions in 2014 was carried out in 2017.
The paper presents the research concept and the key questions the team put forward during the implementation of the project entitled ‘Changing innovation processes models: a chance to break out of dependency paths for less developed regions’. In this chapter, research hypotheses, key concepts concerning the theory of path dependence, a review of the enablers and barriers in shaping development paths regarding the individual parts of the research project are indicated. There are also references to public policy proposals that can support the development of the peripheral paths of the peripheral regions as well as future research concepts of this issue.
The paper presents the history of the development path of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship. The aim of the study was to identify factors conducive to and restrict regional transformation in Warmia and Mazury and to verify the development path of the voivodeship. According to the study, the factors that positively infl uenced the development of the region in the recent period were, among others: EU funds and natural resources that form the basis of a regional economy. The factors that inhibit the development of the region include, among other:. lack of trust, intensifi cation of competition and low transport accessibility of the voivodeship.
The aim of the study was to identify and present the set of activities undertaken to develop an innovative offer of medical treatments by the health resorts facilities Mineral Hotel Malinowy Raj with Baseny Mineralne (mineral pools) situated in a health resort Solec-Zdrój in the świętokrzyskie voivodeship. The research covered the years 2012-2017 and was based on an analysis of the current offers of the selected facilities and of the revitalisation programme for the gmina as well as on the observations and field inspection. It has shown that the resort is becoming multi-functional, offering various options for health improvement, leisure and relax, and developing innovative medical and tourist functions, the latter including sports and well-being. Inevitably, all these changes have their impact on the economic situation of Solec-Zdrój.
The study presents a change in the innovation model and a change of development path towards new industries and modernization of traditional industries in the Pomeranian Voivodship. The characteristics of the region and the characteristics of the regional innovation system based on statistical data, existing research, analysis and interviews with representatives of regional and local authorities, scientists and entrepreneurs of the voivodship were presented. The factors that preceded the change of the innovation model and direct causes of change were identifi ed aa well as the impact of institutional factors and the barriers to the development of the voivodship.
Small and medium sized enterprises (SME) play an important role in the economies of numerous emerging economies. Despite the fact that the SME sector plays a significant role in the national economy it still suffers from the underdeveloped financial sector services. It results in the lower levels of indebtedness of private sector in Poland in relation to such emerging economies like Malaysia, Estonia or Chile. The commercial financial sector is inefficient in delivering funds to SME, the important role in this area is played by regional policy, especially supported from European regional funds. The distribution of development funds is realized with serious problems because SME are reluctant to financial sector services and besides typical grants, debt-type instruments meet serious problems. Polish SME are also reluctant to use support instruments aimed at developing innovations, R&D, and intellectual property (IP) protection. Imitation model of growth still dominates among Polish SME. To address this issue, in 2014 the University of Gdansk (UG) launched a project, supported by National Science Centre (NCN, governmental), on using behavioural interventions to increase the propensity of Polish SME to apply more ambitious development measures through support instruments. The research revealed, that the majority of tested behavioural interventions aimed at building friendly support environment proved to be efficient and increased the interest of SME in developmental activities.
The paradox of enterprise management is the company must continually change in a dynamic and difficult-to-predict environment in order to achieve business continuity and profitability goals. The relatively low efficiency and awareness of the need for change at network organizations means the problems connecting with changes implementation, identification of conditions limiting their realizations and importance of final results are still significant. This article described this issue by the diagnosis of current state of the change management in various types of network organizations and showing how this state can be improved in the future. Assuming the organization will strive for conscious and organized change management.
The aim of the paper is to present an overview of the theoretical basis and stages of the process of opportunities exploration and exploitation in the development of innovativeness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and its preliminary empirical verification on the basis of experience derived from economic practice. The aim of the paper is realized based on the author’s own empirical research carried out in the form of a case study conducted among 5 innovative SME companies in Poland. The results indicate that the analyzed companies associate opportunities directly with entrepreneurship and the development of innovative activity. They take various actions that are part of theoretical principles of effective opportunities exploration and exploitation, which allows them to obtain a number of pro-innovative benefits and which supports the creation of competitive advantage.
Despite significant changes of a political, legal and economic nature, despite clearly expressed intentions, the natural environment of most areas of Europe is further degraded. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt effective solutions, and one of the possibilities of determining the directions of support is the pro-ecological nature of the regional innovation strategy, which will allow transfer of much larger funds to support eco-innovation. The work is a case study. The aim of the research presented in this work is to show the relationship between the provisions of the Regional Innovation Strategy of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship for 2014-2020 for intelligent specialization (RIS3), and the assumptions of the five-helix concept, and the justifi cation for its use in future, in the form of a developed regional eco-innovation strategy.