A microstructural model of Red Blood Cell (RBC) behaviour was proposed. The erythrocyte is treated as a viscoelastic object, which is denoted by a network of virtual particles connected by elastic springs and dampers (Kelvin-Voigt model). The RBC is submerged in plasma modelled by lattice Boltzmann fluid. Fluid – structure interactions are taken into account. The simulations of RBC behaviour during flow in a microchannel and wall impact were performed. The results of RBC deformation during the flow are in good agreement with experimental data. The calculations of erythrocyte disaggregation from the capillary surface show the impact of RBC structure stiffness on the process.
We present a mesoscopic model able to capture the physics of drops moving across patterned surfaces. In this model, interfaces appear naturally, and both chemical and topological patterning can be incorporated with relative ease, making it particularly suitable to study the behaviour of evolving drops.We summarise results on drop dynamics, including drops spreading on a chemically patterned surface, using a hydrophobic grid to alleviate mottle and the transition and dynamics of drops moving across a superhydrophobic surface.
Aerosol filtration in fibrous filters is one of the principal methods of accurate removal of particulate matter from a stream of gas. The classical theory of depth filtration of aerosol particles in fibrous structures is based on the assumption of existing single fibre efficiency, which may be used to recalculate the overall efficiency of entire filter. Using “classical theory” of filtration one may introduce some errors, leading finally to a discrepancy between theory and experiment. There are several reasons for inappropriate estimation of the single fibre efficiency: i) neglecting of shortrange interactions, ii) separation of inertial and Brownian effects, ii) perfect adhesion of particles to the fibre, iv) assumption of perfect mixing of aerosol particles in the gas stream, v) assumption of negligible effect of the presence of neighbouring fibres and vi) assumption of perpendicular orientation of homogenous fibres in the filtration structure. Generally speaking, “classical theory” of filtration was used for characterization of the steady - state filtration process (filtration in a clean filter, at the beginning of the process) without deeper investigation of the influence of the nternal structure of the filter on its performance. The aim of this review is to outline and discuss the progress of deep-bed filtration modelling from the use of simple empirical correlations to advanced techniques of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Digital Fluid Dynamics.
Deep bed filtration is an effective method of submicron and micron particle removal from the fluid stream. There is an extensive body of literature regarding particle deposition in filters, often using the classical continuum approach. However, the approach is not convenient for studying the influence of particle deposition on filter performance (filtration efficiency, pressure drop) when non-steady state boundary conditions have to be introduced. For the purposes of this work the lattice-Boltzmann model describes fluid dynamics, while the solid particle motion is modeled by the Brownian dynamics. For aggregates the effect of their structure on displacement is taken into account. The possibility of particles rebound from the surface of collector or reentrainment of deposits to fluid stream is calculated by energy balanced oscillatory model derived from adhesion theory. The results show the evolution of filtration efficiency and pressure drop of filters with different internal structure described by the size of pores. The size of resuspended aggregates and volume distribution of deposits in filter were also analyzed. The model enables prediction of dynamic filter behavior. It can be a very useful tool for designing filter structures which optimize maximum lifetime with the acceptable values of filtration efficiency and pressure drop.
The accuracy of the Moment Method for imposing no-slip boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann algorithm is investigated numerically using lid-driven cavity flow. Boundary conditions are imposed directly upon the hydrodynamic moments of the lattice Boltzmann equations, rather than the distribution functions, to ensure the constraints are satisfied precisely at grid points. Both single and multiple relaxation time models are applied. The results are in excellent agreement with data obtained from state-of-the-art numerical methods and are shown to converge with second order accuracy in grid spacing.
This paper presents the research studies carried out on the application of lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to computational aeroacoustics (CAA). The Navier-Stokes equation-based solver faces the difficulty of computational efficiency when it has to satisfy the high-order of accuracy and spectral resolution. LBM shows its capabilities in direct and indirect noise computations with superior space-time resolution. The combination of LBM with turbulence models also work very well for practical engineering machinery noise. The hybrid LBM decouples the discretization of physical space from the discretization of moment space, resulting in flexible mesh and adjustable time-marching. Moreover, new solving strategies and acoustic models are developed to further promote the application of LBM to CAA.