Designing, optimizing and analyzing optical systems as part of the implementation process into production of modern luminaires require using advanced simulation and computational methods. The progressive miniaturization of LED (light emitting diode) chips and growth in maximum luminance values, achieving up to 108 cd/m2, require constructing very accurate geometries of reflector and lens systems producing complex luminous intensity distributions while reducing discomfort glare levels. Currently, the design process cannot function without advanced simulation methods. Today’s simulation methods in the lighting technology offer very good results as far as relatively large conventional light sources such as halogen lamps, metal halide lamps and high pressure sodium lamps are concerned. Unfortunately, they often fail in the case of chip-on-board LED light sources whose luminous surface dimensions are increasingly often contained inside a cube of the side length below 1mm. With the high sensitivity of such small chips and lenses with dimensions ranging from a just a few to between 10 and 20 mm, which is presented in this paper, modern luminance distribution measurement methods, luminance modelling and ray tracing methods should be used to minimize any errors arising from incorrectly projecting the design in the final physical model. Also, very importantly, focus should be directed towards reducing a chance of making a mistake while collimating the position of the light source inside the optical system. The paper presents a novel simulation calculation method enriched with an analysis of optical system sensitivity to a light source position. The results of simulation calculations are compared with the results of laboratory measurements for corresponding systems.
Rapid development of computing and visualisation systems has resulted in an unprecedented capability to display, in real time, realistic computer-generated worlds. Advanced techniques, including three-dimensional (3D) projection, supplemented by multi-channel surround sound, create immersive environments whose applications range from entertainment to military to scientific. One of the most advanced virtual reality systems are CAVE-type systems, in which the user is surrounded by projection screens. Knowledge of the screen material scattering properties, which depend on projection geometry and wavelength, is mandatory for proper design of these systems. In this paper this problem is addressed by introducing a scattering distribution function, creating a dedicated measurement setup and investigating the properties of selected materials used for rear projection screens. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the choice of the screen material has substantial impact on the performance of the system