Quality evaluation is very important for haptic rendering. In this paper, an objective evaluation method for a haptic rendering system based on haptic perception features is proposed. In the method, the haptic rendering process is compared to the real world perception process in a simple standardized procedure based on feature extraction and data analysis. A complete evaluation process for a simple haptic rendering task of pressing a virtual spring is presented as an example to explain the method in detail. Compared with the traditional objective method based on error statistics, the method is more concerned about the consistency of human subjective feelings rather than physical parameters, which makes the evaluation process more consistent with the haptic perception mechanism. The results of comparative analysis show that the method presented in this paper is simple, gives reliable results reflecting the consistency with subjective feeling and has a better discrimination ability for different kinds of devices and algorithms compared with the traditional evaluation methods.
When an artificial neural network is used to determine the value of a physical quantity its result is usually presented without an uncertainty. This is due to the difficulty in determining the uncertainties related to the neural model. However, the result of a measurement can be considered valid only with its respective measurement uncertainty. Therefore, this article proposes a method of obtaining reliable results by measuring systems that use artificial neural networks. For this, it considers the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) for propagation of uncertainty distributions during the training and use of the artificial neural networks.
A simple resistance-based method was used to study the epoxy-carbon composite material. Measurement of changes of the resistance between contacts, located on the composite specimens, allows detecting the damage process in quasi-static and fatigue tests. The method can be useful to determine the margin of safety of composite elements.
The paper relates to the problem of adaptation of V-block methods to waviness measurements of cylindrical surfaces. It presents the fundamentals of V-block methods and the principle of their application. The V-block methods can be successfully used to measure the roundness and waviness deviations of large cylinders used in paper industry, shipping industry, or in metallurgy. The concept of adaptation of the V-block method to waviness measurements of cylindrical surfaces was verified using computer simulations and experimental work. The computer simulation was carried out in order to check whether the proposed mathematical model and V-block method parameters are correct. Based on the simulation results, a model of measuring device ROL-2 for V-block waviness measurements was developed. Next, experimental research was carried out consisting in evaluation of waviness deviation, initially using a standard non-reference measuring device, and then using the tested device based on the V-block method. Finally, accuracy of the V-block experimental method was calculated.
The paper presents examinations of the surface of base concrete with a 3D scanner. Two base concrete surfaces, differently prepared, were examined, together with two measurement strategies: simple and fast 3D scanning and partial scanning in selected areas corresponding to the device measurement space. In order to complete the analysis of a concrete surface topography an original Matlab-based program TAS (Topography Analysis and Simulation) was developed for both 2D and 3D surface analyses. It enables data processing, calculation of parameters, data visualization and digital filtration.
Nowadays the “gold clinical standard” of hemodynamics diagnostic and cardiac output measurements is pulmonary artery catheterization by means of the Swan-Ganz catheter and thermodilution. The method itself is sensitive to numerous disturbances which cause inaccurate results. One of the well-known disadvantages of thermodilution is the overestimation of results at low values of cardiac output. This effect may concern the limited slew rate of the thermoelement mounted at the tip of the catheter. In this paper the relationship between the dynamic response of the thermoelement and the uncertainty of cardiac output measurements by means of thermodilution has been investigated theoretically and experimentally.
This paper presents a method of using a sensor with uniform Bragg grating with appropriately generated zone chirp. The presented method can be used for measuring two physical quantities, namely strain and temperature. By providing the same temperature sensitivity and different sensitivity to strain of two parts of a sensor, and experimental measurement of qualities of the proposed system and its calibration (experimental determination of sensitivity), verification of the results obtained from laboratory tests and the possibility of its practical implementation has been confirmed. The sensor grating was placed in such a way that its half was in the zone of a variable value of axial strain caused by changes of the cross-section of the sample. The other half, however, was in the zone of a constant cross-section of the sample and of constant value of strain, caused by the force stretching the sample. The obtained errors of non-linearity of processing characteristics for measuring strain and temperature of the proposed system were 2.7% and 1.5% respectively, while coefficients of sensitivity to strain and temperature were 0.77 x 10-6 m/e and 4.13 x 10-12 m/K respectively. The maximum differences between the values obtained from the indirect measurement and the set values were 110 μe for strain and 3.8°C for temperature, for a strain of 2500 μe and a temperature of 40°C.
The paper presents research results of multilayer systems composed of alternate Cu/Ni layers. The layers thickness obtained by the galvanic treatment was determined by using the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction method in the grazing incidence diffraction geometry. The surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis. Observation of the surface topography of systems using the atomic force microscope was also carried out.
Accurate flatness measurement of silicon wafers is affected greatly by the gravity-induced deflection (GID) of the wafers, especially for large and thin wafers. The three-point-support method is a preferred method for the measurement, in which the GID uniquely determined by the positions of the supports could be calculated and subtracted. The accurate calculation of GID is affected by the initial stress of the wafer and the positioning errors of the supports. In this paper, a finite element model (FEM) including the effect of initial stress was developed to calculate GID. The influence of the initial stress of the wafer on GID calculation was investigated and verified by experiment. A systematic study of the effects of positioning errors of the support ball and the wafer on GID calculation was conducted. The results showed that the effect of the initial stress could not be neglected for ground wafers. The wafer positioning error and the circumferential error of the support were the most influential factors while the effect of the vertical positioning error was negligible in GID calculation.
Present paper is a continuation of works on evaluation of red, green, blue (RGB) to hue, saturation, intensity (HSI) colour space transformation in regard to digital image processing application in optical measurements methods. HSI colour space seems to be the most suitable domain for engineering applications due to its immunity to non-uniform lightning. Previous stages referred to the analysis of various RGB to HSI colour space transformations equivalence and programming platform configuration influence on the algorithms execution. The main purpose of this step is to understand the influence of computer processor architecture on the computing time, since analysis of images requires considerable computer resources. The technical development of computer components is very fast and selection of particular processor architecture can be an advantage for fastening the image analysis and then the measurements results. In this paper the colour space transformation algorithms, their complexity and execution time are discussed. The most common algorithms were compared with the authors own one. Computing time was considered as the main criterion taking into account a technical advancement of two computer processor architectures. It was shown that proposed algorithm was characterized by shorter execution time than in reported previously results.