The paper reports meiotic studies on 50 populations comprising 12 species belonging to 5 genera of Caryophyllaceae from the Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in Arenaria kashmirica (n=20), Silene conoidea (n=20), S. edgeworthii (n=12 and n=24), S. moorcroftiana (n=24), S. nepalensis (n=12), Stellaria media (n=13), S. monosperma (n=13) and S. semivestita (n=13) are reported for the first time. The chromosome numbers in Lychnis coronaria (n=12) and Silene vulgaris (n=24) are given for the first time from India, along with Gypsophilla ceratioides (n=15) from the Western Himalayas. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Silene conoidea, S. edgeworthii, S. vulgaris, Stellaria media, S. monosperma and S. semivestita. The course of meiosis was abnormal in all studied populations of Lychnis coronaria. Abnormal microsporogenesis (cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges) led to reduced pollen fertility and differences in pollen grain size.
The present work deals with population-based meiotic studies on eight species belonging to four genera of the family Commelinaceae from different regions of Kangra Valley which is well known for its rich floristic diversity. At the world level, different cytotypes for four species such as Commelina hasskarlii (2n = 22, 60), C. kurzii (2n = 60), Murdannia nudiflora (2n = 24) and M. spirata (2n = 24) have been recorded for the first time at various ploidy levels. Additionally, from India, the new chromosome count for Tradescantia pallida (2n = 24) has been reported at the tetraploid level. The course of meiosis has been found to be normal in all the populations of Commelina benghalensis, C. paludosa, Murdannia nudiflora and M. spirata while four species, Commelina hasskarlii, C. kurzii, Cyanotis cristata and Tradescantia pallida have shown a normal to abnormal meiotic course in different populations. These meiotic abnormalities have revealed a clear effect on the pollen size and pollen fertility.
The development of megasporocytes and the functional megaspore formation in Deschampsia antarctica were analyzed with the use of microscopic methods. A single archesporial cell was formed directly under the epidermis in the micropylar region of the ovule without producing a parietal cell. In successive stages of development, the meiocyte was transformed into a megaspore tetrad after meiosis. Most megaspores were arranged in a linear fashion, but some tetrads were T-shaped. Only one of the 60 analyzed ovules contained a cell in the direct proximity of the megasporocyte, which could be an aposporous initial. Most of the evaluated D. antarctica ovules featured monosporic embryo sacs of the Polygonum type. Approximately 30% of ovules contained numerous megaspores that were enlarged. The megaspores were located at chalazal and micropylar poles, and some ovules featured two megaspores - terminal and medial - in the chalazal region, or even three megaspores at the chalazal pole. In those cases, the micropylar megaspore was significantly smaller than the remaining megaspores, and it did not have the characteristic features of functional megaspores. Meiocytes and megaspores of D. antarctica contained polysaccharides that were detectable by PAS-reaction and aniline blue staining. Starch granules and cell walls of megasporocytes, megaspores and nucellar cells were PAS-positive. Fluorescent callose deposits were identified in the micropylar end of the megasporocytes. During meiosis and after its completion, thick callose deposits were also visible in the periclinal walls and in a small amount in the anticlinal walls of megaspores forming linear and T-shaped tetrads. Callose deposits fluorescence was not observed in the walls of the nucellar cells.
Here we report the consequences of telomere erosion in Arabidopsis thaliana, studied by examining seed and pollen production and the course of male meiosis through the last five generations (G5-G9) of telomerase-deficient Arabidopsis mutants. We used a previously described mutant line in which telomerase activity was abolished by T-DNA insertion into the TERT gene encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase. Reduced fertility accompanied by morphological abnormalities occurred in G6, which produced on average 35 seeds per silique (vs. 43 in wild type) and worsened in G7 (30 seeds) and G8 (14 seeds), as did the morphological abnormalities. The last generation of tert mutants (G9) did not form reproductive organs. Analysis of meiosis indicated that the main cause of reduced fertility in the late generation tert mutants of Arabidopsis was the numerous chromosomal end-to-end fusions which led to massive genome rearrangements in meiocytes. Fusion of meiotic chromosomes began in G5 and increased in each of the next generations. Unpaired chromosomes (univalents) were observed in G7 and G8. The study highlights some differences in the meiotic consequences of telomere shortening between plant and animal systems.