At the ice edge krill undergoes diurnal migrations with the period of 12 hours and amplitude of about 6 meters. The mean depth of krill occurrence is 41 m, shallower then for open waters. In our opinion these migration parameters are characteristic of juvenile adolescent krill dominating at the ice edge.
Contemporary world brings along a continuing interpenetration of cultures strengthened by the migration revolution. The social space created by multiplicity of ethnic groups is very often a result of migration processes which totally formed such states as Canada or Australia. The sources of the European multiculturalism were, on the one hand, the officially accepted workforce, on the other hand – immigration being the effect of the colonial past of such states as France, Great Britain or Germany
Inflow areas of Poles to Germany after the EU enlargement in 2004. The aim of this article is to analyse one of the important components of contemporary Polish-German relationships, i.e. migration of Polish population to Germany. The scale and dynamics of this process have intensified since Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004 and full opening of the German labour market to Polish citizens in 2011. The article focuses on spatial consequences of Polish-German migration seen from the perspective of the immigrant country. Its conclusions are based on unique statistical data and cartographic materials.
On the basis of hydroacoustic observations it is shown that migrations of krill during spring are stronger than during summer. Migrations of krill are described by the function: H(t) = A + Bcos((2ᴨt/T + φ ) + C c o s ( 2 ᴨt/T + φ ), where: H is depth of the mass center of krill biomass, A — mean depth of krill occurrence, В — amplitude of migrations with period T! = 24 h, С — amplitude of migrations with period T2 = 12 h, (φ1, φ2 — phases of migration process with T, = 24 and T2 = 12 hours. Parameters of the equation are the following: spring — A = 62.2 m, В = 19.5 m, С = 4.6 m, φ1 = 0.1 h, φ2 = 0 . 1 5 h; summer — A = 75.8 m, В = 0.5 m, С = 3.6 m, φ1 = 1.8 h, φ2 = 6.4 h.
The article presents the author’s considerations relating to the current and common problem of multiculturalism. Nowadays “multiculturalism” can be defined as co-existence – in the determined physical, social and political sphere as well as in a concrete historical period of time – of many ethnic groups representing different axiological and normative systems. The social created by multiplicity of ethnic groups is very often a result of migration processes which totally formed such states as Canada or Australia. The sources of the European multiculturalism were, on the one hand, the officially accepted workforce as Federal Republic of Germany, on the other one – immigration being the effect of the colonial past of such states as France, Holland or Britain. All these countries took up more or less advanced actions towards being able to deal with the deepening ethnic diversification. There appeared political project – multiculturalism.
The traditional model of the multinational city, which was based on the harmonious coexistence of separated ethnic residential districts and common multinational public areas, where the exchange of services and goods took place, gives way to the contemporary model, based on the principle of dispersion and segmentation. In the postmodern city virtual space has increasingly becoming a platform of exchange: numerous economic, social and cultural functions are performed through the ubiquitous electronic communications. Public space, symbolic for the European concept of the city, is losing many of its previous functions in favour of the Internet. The dispersion of immigrants in the structure of the multinational city is conducive to the emergence of an attractive, kaleidoscopic and multicultural urban organism, their separation in ghettos results in intensification of pathologies. Integration is assuming the form of a network, while separation that of walls.
This article explores caring through feeding as an important aspect of transnational family life, and analyzes the practices connected to sending food products home, supervising what the family eats, and changing consumption patterns. It focuses on Filipino migrants to the United States who maintain transnational ties with their families. With a history of colonial encounter, the United States has been a popular migration destination, and has also strongly inﬂuenced food consumption. The study shows the ways in which packages from abroad (balikbayan boxes) express love and care, and how they allow migrants to control food consumption of the family in the country of origin. By looking at the goods the immigrants put in the packages, and the way these are received, it is possible to uncover the dynamics of love, care, and intimacy in transnational families, which often translate into power, tensions, and control among family-members. The article analyses how food products sent in the packages work, bringing with them new ideas and practices, creating imaginaries of migration, and building the social prestige of the immigrant. Using the concept of “social remittances”, the article also shows the changing patterns of food consumption in the Philippines.
Observations indicate a constantly decreasing mean age of shoal. In consecutive years of investigations a loss of older individuals was recorded. At present the catches consist of 3—14 years old fishes; 9—10 years old dominate. During the austral summer the fish most probably do not migrate. The shoal of the shelf maintains approximately constant frequency and dominance in classes of length.
The paper examines the most important Italian historical novel and focuses on its principal migration routes, especially concerning main characters. It also examines a variety of representations of border and frontier (also in a metaphorical sense) in the novel.
The general objective of this research has been to identify the factors and conditions of migration of CaCO3 within glaciers and their marginal zones in Svalbard . Special attention has been paid to the cryochemical processes responsible for precipitation of calcium carbonate in icing (naled ice) formed near fronts of polythermal glaciers during winter. Estimates of the importance of those processes in respect of the general mineral mass transfer in the glacier system are attempted here. Field studies concerning the carbonate contents in proglacial sediments and icing fields were carried out in the Werenskioldbreen and the Elisebreen basins (S and NW Spitsbergen respectively). A functional model of CaCO3 migration in a glacier system is proposed which indicates the various paths of the mineral mass flow. Considerations on intensity of glacial processes permitted quantitative estimation of the particular components in respect to the Werenskioldbreen basin. Cryochemical processes do not appear to be of overriding importance in such migration but, clearly, they play a specific role in retaining CaCO3 in the proglacial zone on land. The crystalline forms present in the icings, which have many lattice defects, are very easily re-dissolved or removed by wind.
Aconitum lasiocarpum (Carpathian endemic) and A. variegatum (European endemic) occur sympatrically in the Polish Western Carpathians. Here their taxonomic hybrid A. ×pawlowskii occurs. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the taxonomic (Linnaean approach) and genetic structure (PCR-ISSR analysis) of the populations and individuals in two allopatric and four sympatric populations. We determined 309 individuals (OTUs) to species, subspecies and nothospecies using the Linnaean system of classification, and then genetically fingerprinted 39 randomly chosen OTUs. Comparison of the Nei and Li distances obtained from ISSR and morphological matrices using the Mantel test indicated a significant correlation (n = 39, r = 0.53, P = 0.001). Genetic analysis (NEWHYBRIDS) pointed to 7 OTUs as being later-generation hybrids (B1 introgessants) in the sympatric area. Five of them belong to A. variegatum, indicating cryptic introgression, and two belong to A. ×pawlowskii. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NDMS) showed gene flow between A. lasiocarpum and A. ×pawlowskii. Allopatric, morphologically pure A. lasiocarpum and A. variegatum populations differed significantly in their ISSR profiles (Fischer's R×C test, P < 0.0001). Expected heterozygosity (Hj) was significantly (p=0.05) lower in allopatric (0.1261-0.1268) than in sympatric populations (0.1348-0.1509), indicating a genetic melting pot in sympatry. The results support the existence of a natural interspecific hybrid swarm zone in the sympatric area of occurrence of Aconitum, and the taxonomic circumscription of the nothospecies within the Linnaean taxonomic system
The aim of this article is to analyze both the motivations of foreign scholars to come to work in Poland – specifically Kraków – and their ways of adapting to this significant Polish academic center. Most studies on highly skilled migrants (HSMs) concentrate on the flows between developing and highly developed countries. We concentrate on Central and Eastern Europe. This paper, based on in-depth interviews with 23 foreign scholars working full-time at four universities in Kraków, is a follow-up to a study presenting a 2015 analysis of websites of universities from Kraków. We look closely at barriers to and facilitators of foreign scholars’ adaptation to Poland and their perceived image of Poland and Polishness, their national identification and international contacts. We propose a typology comprised of “cosmopolitans”, “status seekers”, “enthusiasts”, and “commuters”. Our investigations reveal who decides to move to a semi-peripheral country such as Poland, and why. Certain parts of the narratives can be used in building a strategy of attracting more international scholars to academic centers such as Kraków.