“Mineral deposit model”, “deposit modelling” are the terms commonly used, although imprecise. This is often identified as the application of computerized methods to the elaboration and presentation of geological information, in particular for the mining design. Deposit modelling is the mode of presentation of deposit features, which in the meaning of the authors of such presentation, describes the deposit features between the points of observations as best as possible. Deposit modelling has a long history (XVI-XVII centuries), however such a term was not used. Varied methods of cartographic presentation of deposits and their features were proposed. The progress in the presentation of the deposit in space using isolines maps has led to the separation of methods of deposits geometrisation. Over time, a simple mathematical statistics method was used to describe the deposit parameters, followed by geostatistical methods. Some of them were however not commonly used as too troublesome. The computer based approach to the presentation of geological data has an unquestionable value but is accompanied by the possibility of inappropriate formalized and erroneous interpretations and a presentation as to whether the basic rules of geological knowledge were neglected. Deposits modeling is a conceptual task and cannot be fully automated.
The complexity of the phenomena associated with the course of the cognitive processes that determine an efficient learning, excludes the possibility of collecting knowledge in other ways than neuronal-information. It excludes also possibilities of interpreting it, in other ways than with use of respectively formalized cognitive models. The presented paper is a kind of summary of the latest achievements in this field.
Prognozowanie pogody wymaga znajomości praw rządzących ruchem atmosfery. Obok mechaniki płynów trzeba uwzględnić ruch obrotowy naszej planety, zróżnicowane nagrzewanie jej powierzchni wskutek pochłaniania promieniowania słonecznego, a także procesy parowania wody i kondensacji pary wodnej.
Two formal types of models of living processes, especially evolutionary ones, may be distinguished: the well-known mathematical type and the less-known logical one. The latter applies the terms “class” or “set”; both the terms are understood either in a collective sense (in mereology) or in a distributive sense (in set theory). These formal terms may be used among others to such organic multiplicities as populations or species of organisms, and to organic constituents (molecules, cells, organs) of living organism. Collective concepts refer to objects existing in nature, whereas distributive concepts refer to the linguistic and research constructions of models of natural objects, developed to cognitively grasp natural regularities.
The operational mineral deposit reconnaissance tends to evaluate its parameters to conduct safe and profitable production. Particular deposit parameters, important from the point of mineral deposit management, are estimated on the basis of observations carried out by mining geological surveys. These observations usually involve sampling, drilling, laboratory analyses and others. The use of fuzzy description to assess the parameters of the mineral deposit was proposed in the paper. In the fuzzy characteristics, an imprecise descriptive description appeared in place of a particular numerical quantity. This approach was used to description of the ore deposit features (metal content, volume, and metal yield) by assigning them specific characteristic functions, whose distributions were based on basic statistical quantities. Characteristic functions can be used to prepare operational strategies for any configuration of required deposit parameters resulting from the production management needs. For this purpose, selected logical operators of fuzzy sets were used. In the next approach to fuzzy modeling, an opportunity to characterize the deposit in a subjective approach was indicated, where the assessment of the deposit parameters is based on rough, in some way, discretionary observation and evaluation. Such model construction enabled the overall assessment of the deposit from the point of view of any parameters. Through the implementation of appropriate inference rules, adequate fuzzy control planes were obtained, which may also be useful in the context of operational mine strategy planning.
This paper presents the analysis of the influence of works related to the dynamic replacement column formation on the bridge pillar and the highway embankment located nearby. Thanks to DR columns, it is possible to strengthen the soil under road embankment in a very efficient way. However, the construction of such support carries risk to buildings and engineering structures located in the neighbourhood. Therefore modelling and monitoring of the influence of the conducted works should be an indispensable element of each investment in which dynamic replacement method is applied. The presented issue is illustrated by the example of soil strengthening with DR columns constructed under road embankment of DTŚ highway located in Gliwice. During the inspection, the influence of vibrations on the nearby bridge pillar and road embankment was examined. The acceleration values obtained during these tests were used to verify the elaborated numerical model.
The paper presents results of numerical calculations of a diaphragm wall model executed in Poznań clay formation. Two selected FEM codes were applied, Plaxis and Abaqus. Geological description of Poznań clay formation in Poland as well as geotechnical conditions on construction site in Warsaw city area were presented. The constitutive models of clay implemented both in Plaxis and Abaqus were discussed. The parameters of the Poznań clay constitutive models were assumed based on authors’ experimental tests. The results of numerical analysis were compared taking into account the measured values of horizontal displacements.
Najnowsze metody badań, takie jak rentgenowska tomografia komputerowa, są pomocne w poszukiwaniach złóż ropy naftowej i gazu ziemnego. A zastosowanie nowoczesnych metod obliczeniowych pozwala określić rodzaj złoża oraz jego zasobność.
In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems).
Assessment of the flexural buckling resistance of bisymmetrical I-section beam-columns using FEM is widely discussed in the paper with regard to their imperfect model. The concept of equivalent geometric imperfections is applied in compliance with the so-called Eurocode’s general method. Various imperfection profiles are considered. The global effect of imperfections on the real compression members behaviour is illustrated by the comparison of imperfect beam-columns resistance and the resistance of their perfect counterparts. Numerous FEM simulations with regard to the stability behaviour of laterally and torsionally restrained steel structural elements of hot-rolled wide flange HEB section subjected to both compression and bending about the major or minor principal axes were performed. Geometrically and materially nonlinear analyses, GMNA for perfect structural elements and GMNIA for imperfect ones, preceded by LBA for the initial curvature evaluation of imperfect member configuration prior to loading were carried out. Numerical modelling and simulations were conducted with use of ABAQUS/Standard program. FEM results are compared with those obtained using the Eurocode’s interaction criteria of Method 1 and 2. Concluding remarks with regard to a necessity of equivalent imperfection profiles inclusion in modelling of the in-plane resistance of compression members are presented.