Methods and results of mass movement measurements on mountain slopes in northwestern Wedel Jarlsberg Land are presented in connection with morphoclimatic zones. Debris movement was investigated using fishing nets while movement of solifluction tonques was studied with series of nails. Marks and lines crosswise the investigated forms were also painted. Creeping of stone belts was measured with a use of tree-nails. Observations of these measuring points after twelve months show usability of employed methods for a record of mass movements.
Stanisław Wyspiański (1869–1907) was the Polish dramatist, the poet, besides the illustrator and the painter, one of the best known artist of the Young Poland movement. His journey to Europe (particulary to Paris) became very important experience in his life. He discovered the value of loneliness, he had to be alone – as an artist and as a man. He was called “a hermit from Cracow” and for this reason his genius was not always appreciated. However, at the end of life, Wyspiański undergoes a significant transformation: he feels a strong connection to community, as a member of the nation and society, as well as a host.
Eye tracking constitutes a valuable tool for the examination of human visual behavior since it provides objective measurements related to the performed visual strategies during the observation of any type of visual stimuli. Over the last decade, eye movement analysis contributed substantially to the better understanding of how visual attention processes work in different types of maps. Considering the clear need for the examination of map user reaction during the observation of realistic cartographic products (i.e. static maps, animated maps, interactive and multimedia maps), a critical amount of experimental studies were performed in order to study different aspects related to map reading process by the cartographic community. The foundation of these studies is based on theories and models that have been developed in similar research domains (i.e. psychology, neuroscience etc.), while the research outcomes that produced over these years can be used directly for the design of more effective and efficient maps. The aim of the present article is to summarize and present the current panorama of the existing eye tracking studies in cartographic research appeared over the last decade. Additionally, methodological contributions (including analysis tools) of cartographic society in the field of eye movement analysis are reported, while existing challenges and future perspectives are also discussed.
After the collapse of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan in April 1920, the Azerbaijani intellectual and political elites suffered repressions from the Bolshevik authorities. The most prominent figures had to leave the country fearing for their lives. Among them was the renowned journalist, publicist and head of the Musavat party - Mehemmed Emin Resulzade. Fearing the Bolshevik expansion westwards, Polish authorities strived to weaken and destroy the Soviet Union's integrity. Their goal was to create a "sanitary cordon" of independent states between Poland and Bolshevik Russia. Thanks to the direct financial support from the Polish government, the political emigration from Azerbaijan, Georgia, North Caucasus and other states published their magazines and newspapers. In the second half of the 20th century, there was a political rapprochement between Turkey and the Soviet Union. As a result, the political situation of anti-Soviet emigration worsened. Therefore, the main burden of Azerbaijani emigration, headed by Resulzade, moved over the Vistula. The Polish period was very important for the publishing activities of the whole Azerbaijani emigration, represented by Resulzade. He mainly contributed to anti-Soviet press, tied to the Promethean movement, but not only. The author will present here rarely known Resulzade articles on other topics. The article also presents his book in Polish Azerbaijan in its Fight for Independence.
In this article I will try to describe the lesson learnt by the corporations from the grass root movements in the cities. In the proposed analysis I will refer to the conception of recuperation and a soul of capitalism – by Luc Boltanski and Ève Chiapello. Besides it I will refer to the works of these authors who analyse the beginnings and the activism of the city grass-root movements in a context of critique of capitalism and neoliberal system.
The Catholic image of Martin Luther in the course of the centuries evolved from the literally negative one during the time of the Reformation and the centuries that followed, through the theological attempts and historically in-depth analyses inspired by the ecumenical movement up to contemporary acceptance of several theological postulates. Contemporary movements of Roman-Catholic thinking of Luther well summarize historically vulnerable and dogmatically deepened opinions of the recent popes: John Paul II, Benedict XVI and Francis. Following the agreement texts of the Lutheran-Catholic Commission at the world forum, ecumenically open popes can find out in Martin Luther a profoundly religious man, the witness of the Gospel whose theological thought is still relevant and a challenge for the presently secularized world.
The aim of this paper is to reflect on the role of non-governmental organizations in contemporary cities. It is assumed that post-socialist cities are subjected to changes related to new models of citizenship as well as new models of urban social movements. First, a general picture of Polish non-governmental sector is presented. Next the idea of social movements in a post socialist city is given. The following part presents the idea of NGO as agents of a social change.Th e notions of social conflict, common good and a collective identity are used. The paper sums up with conclusions and a demand to built coalitions between different social actors.
Urban social movements present themselves as an answer to de3 ciencies of local politics. In this way, they situate themselves in agreement with popular diagnoses of crisis of democracy, and propose their own model of involvement in politics. However, is this model a chance for renewal of democracy, or is it just another version of politics understood as an enlightened management? Does it have the potential for broadening the political, or does it stop halfway? Presented article is an attempt in rethinking those questions. First part compares different political languages, in which critiques of contemporary democracy are formulated. Subsequently, Jacques Rancière’s conception is presented, as emphasising egalitarian and emancipatory dimensions of democracy. Examples of rhetorics and actions of urban social movements are considered in this double context of different political languages and radical character of democracy. The problem of ‘deficient political articulation’, which makes urban social movements unable to fully keep the promises they make, is stressed.
The analytical method of calculation of a withstand motion of fine-grained mixture is worked out in the vertical cylindrical sieve of vibrocentrifuge. Integration of differential equalization of motion is show out the reserved formulas for the calculation of kinematics descriptions of grain flow. The two-parameter continual model of the state of separation mixture is used in researches, as a heterogeneous continuous environment with variable specific mass (by porosity) on the thickness of movable layer of friable material. Change of specific mass on a radial coordinate in the cylindrical layer of mixture approximated by the function of degree, the coefficients of that are certain by the Aitken's method. Due to such approximation, the analytical decision of differential equalization of the grain flow, shown out with the use of two-parameter rheological dependence, in that the constituent of linear viscid resistance is complemented by the constituent of remaining internal dry friction, proportional overpressure in mixture, is built. An analytical decision is expressed as squaring that is not expressed through elementary functions in closed form, the close method of calculation of integral offers that is why, with the use of partial sum of row of degree. The results got close formulas result in that well comport with the results of numerical computer integration of squaring. Such method the continual models of grain flow on vibrosieves, it is assumed in that friable material is fully confined internal dry friction, are generalized known for, as a result of vibrodilution. The examples of calculations are considered, where influence of different factors is investigational, in particular values of rheological coefficients and change of porosity, on kinematics descriptions. It is set that calculation kinematics descriptions of grain flow substantially depend not only on the thickness of movable layer and rheological constants, and also from the concentration of grains near free surface of the mixture. Thus, worked out here a method of research of vertical grain flow in the cylindrical sieve of vibrocentrifuge can be an alternative to other methods in that for the calculation of motion of grain mixture of variable porosity conducted numerical computer integration of nonlinear differential equalizations.
Progress was an ideological concept in the political movements of the 19th century. This article asks how the women’s movements argued withthe concept of progress in a region which had been considered as backward since its establishment as the Habsburg part of partitioned Poland. The analysis focuses on how the political movements in 19th-century Galicia took advantage of the topoi of backwardness and progress, using them as rhetorical elements. Examples are taken from the Ukrainian women’s movement and women’s politics in the Zionist movement.