The presence of more than one solute diffused in fluid mixtures is very often requested for discussing the natural phenomena such as transportation of contaminants, underground water, acid rain and so on. In the paper, the effect of nonlinear thermal radiation on triple diffusive convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid along a horizontal plate is theoretically investigated. Similarity transformations are utilized to reduce the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The reduced equations are numerically solved using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method along with shooting technique. The impact of several existing physical parameters on velocity, temperature, solutal and nanofluid concentration profiles are analyzed through graphs and tables in detail. It is found that, modified Dufour parameter and Dufour solutal Lewis number enhances the temperature and solutal concentration profiles respectively.
Experimental investigation of heat transfer during pool boiling of two nanofluids, i.e. water-Al2O3 and water-Cu has been carried out. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% by weight. The horizontal smooth stainless steel tubes having 10 mm OD and 0.6 mm wall thickness formed the test heater. The experiments have been performed to establish the influence of nanofluids concentration on heat transfer characteristics during boiling at different absolute operating pressure values, i.e. 200 kPa, ca. 100 kPa (atmospheric pressure) and 10 kPa. It was established that independent of nanoparticle materials (Al2O3 and Cu) and their concentration, an increase of operating pressure enhances heat transfer. Generally, independent of operating pressure, sub- and atmospheric pressure, and overpressure, an increase of nanoparticle concentration caused heat transfer augmentation.
This paper presents results of investigations on the application of CuO-water nanofluids for intensification of convective heat transfer. Performance of nanofluids with 2.2 and 4.0 vol.% CuO NPs (nanoparticles) content were examined with regard to heat transfer coefficient and pressure losses in case of turbulent flow in a tube. Negligible impact of examined nanofluid on heat transfer improvement was found. Moreover, measured pressure losses significantly exceeded those determined for primary base liquid. The observations showed that application of nanofluid for heat transfer intensification with a relatively high solid load in the examined flow range is rather controversial.
This article reports the effects of CuO/water based coolant on specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of four stroke single cylinder diesel engine. The CuO nanoparticles of 27 nm were used to prepare the nanofluid-based engine coolant. Three different volume concentrations (i.e 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) of CuO/water nanofluids were prepared by using two-step method. The purpose of this study is to investigate the exhaust emissions (NOx), exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption under different load conditions with CuO/water nanofluid. After a series of experiments, it was observed that the CuO/water nanofluids, even at low volume concentrations, have a significant influence on exhaust emissions. The experimental results revealed that, at full load condition, the specific fuel consumption was reduced by 8.6%, 15.1% and 21.1% for the addition of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% CuO nanoparticles with water, respectively. Also, the emission tests were concluded that 881 ppm, 853 ppm and 833 ppm of NOx emissions were observed at high load with 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% volume concentrations of CuO/water nanofluids, respectively.
In this study the results of simultaneous measurements of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and pH of two nanofluids, i.e., thermal oil/Al2O3and thermal oil/TiO2are presented. Thermal oil is selected as a base liquid because of possible application in ORC systems as an intermediate heating agent. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.1%, 1%, and 5% by weight within temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. Measurement devices were carefully calibrated by comparison obtained results for pure base liquid (thermal oil) with manufacturer’s data. The results obtained for tested nanofluids were compared with predictions made by use of existing models for liquid/solid particles mixtures.
In this study, copper nanoparticles and nanofluids were synthesized by electrical explosion of wire (EEW) in liquid media such as water, ethanol, and acetone. The effect of the different conditions on the properties of the as-synthesized Cu powders and nanofluids were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was employed to measure the phase of the as-synthesized powder. Only pure Cu phase appeared in case of acetone condition, but CuO and CuO2 phases could be observed in the others. The EEWed particle size was broadened from under 50 to 100 nm. The results showed that acetone was the best condition for achieving smaller particles, preventing the oxidation of the Cu particles and good stability of the nanofluids.
The paper deals with pool boiling of water-Al2O3and water-Cu nanofluids on rough and porous coated horizontal tubes. Commercially available stainless steel tubes having 10 mm outside diameter and 0.6 mm wall thickness were used to fabricate the test heater. The tube surface was roughed with emery paper 360 or polished with abrasive compound. Aluminium porous coatings of 0.15 mm thick with porosity of about 40% were produced by plasma spraying. The experiments were conducted under different absolute operating pressures, i.e., 200, 100, and 10 kPa. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.01, 0.1, and 1% by weight. Ultrasonic vibration was used in order to stabilize the dispersion of the nanoparticles. It was observed that independent of operating pressure and roughness of the stainless steel tubes addition of even small amount of nanoparticles augments heat transfer in comparison to boiling of distilled water. Contrary to rough tubes boiling heat transfer coefficient of tested nanofluids on porous coated tubes was lower compared to that for distilled water while boiling on porous coated tubes. A correlation equation for prediction of the average heat transfer coefficient during boiling of nanofluids on smooth, rough and porous coated tubes is proposed. The correlation includes all tested variables in dimensionless form and is valid for low heat flux, i.e., below 100 kW/m2.
The pool boiling characteristics of dilute dispersions of alumina, zirconia and silica nanoparticles in water were studied. These dispersions are known as nanofluids. Consistently with other nanofluid studies, it was found that a significant enhancement in Critical Heat Flux (CHF) can be achieved at modest nanoparticle concentrations (<0.1% by volume). Buildup of a porous layer of nanoparticles on the heater surface occurred during nucleate boiling. This layer significantly improves the surface wettability, as shown by a reduction of the static contact angle on the nanofluid-boiled surfaces compared with the pure-water-boiled surfaces. CHF theories support the nexus between CHF enhancement and surface wettability changes. This represents a first important step towards identification of a plausible mechanism for boiling CHF enhancement in nanofluids.
Cooling is indispensable for maintaining the desired performance and reliability over a very huge variety of products like electronic devices, computer, automobiles, high power laser system etc. Apart from the heat load amplification and heat fluxes caused by many industrial products, cooling is one of the major technical challenges encountered by the industries like manufacturing sectors, transportation, microelectronics, etc. Normally water, ethylene glycol and oil are being used as the fluid to carry away the heat in these devices. The development of nanofluid generally shows a better heat transfer characteristics than the water. This research work summarizes the experimental study of the forced convective heat transfer and flow characteristics of a nanofluid consisting of water and 1% Al2O3(volume concentration) nanoparticle flowing in a parallel flow, counter flow and shell and tube heat exchanger under laminar flow conditions. The Al2O3 nanoparticles of about 50 nm diameter are used in this work. Three different mass flow rates have been selected and the experiments have been conducted and their results are reported. This result portrays that the overall heat transfer coefficient and dimensionless Nusselt number of nanofluid is slightly higher than that of the base liquid at same mass flow rate at same inlet temperature. From the experimental result it is clear that the overall heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid increases with an increase in the mass flow rate. It shows that whenever mass flow rate increases, the overall heat transfer coefficient along with Nusselt number eventually increases irrespective of flow direction. It was also found that during the increase in mass flow rate LMTD value ultimately decreases irrespective of flow direction. However, shell and tube heat exchanger provides better heat transfer characteristics than parallel and counter flow heat exchanger due to multi pass flow of nanofluid. The overall heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number and logarithmic mean temperature difference of the water and Al2O3/water nanofluid are also studied and the results are plotted graphically.